|Administrative / biographical background:
Eugene Carless established his distilling and oil refining business in 1859 at Hackney Wick, on land adjoining White Post Lane. Here he constructed the Hope Chemical Works. In 1860 William George Blagdon joined as a partner, emaining with Carless for ten years. After the dissolution of the partnership Carless became the leading distillery in Britain for the newly imported American crude oil, and made advances in refining coal tar and shales, from which derived benzoline, paraffin oil, burning naphtha and carburine. A brief partnership with George Bligh Capel made in 1870 was dissolved in 1872, and was replaced with a new partnership between Capel and John Hare Leonard, trading as Carless, Capel and Leonard, with Carless as works manager. Leonard became the sole proprietor within eighteen months.
A major fire in 1890 damaged but did not destroy the Hope works. In 1895 Leonard negotiated the purchase of the nearby Pharos Chemical Works from Leon Clerc, together with his interests as a refiner, distiller and importer of a range of products, including petroleum. An associate of Gottlieb Daimler, Frederick Simms suggested the trade name of Petrol, to be used for a motor launch spirit in 1893, and this was accepted by William Leonard, though it was not accepted for registration as a trade mark as it was regarded by the Registrar as a descriptive word. Marketing petrol firmly linked the firm with the motor car and Carless Capel and Leonard supplied their new fuel for the Emancipation Run to Brighton in 1896. Simms and Leonard were both founder members of the Automobile Club, later the R.A.C. At the turn of the century Carless Petrol was stil virtually the only British source of highly refined motor spirit, and by 1906 the firm had 1,500 agents throughout the country. Further expansion at Hackney Wick took place in 1907 with the purchase of the Lea Chemical Works.
The Leonard family remained active in the firm and took up new products in the 1920s like coalite, supplied as a fuel to the RAF from 1934, though problems with coal mining caused production to cease in 1939. During World War II the firm's output included the production of TNT. The works suffered bomb damage especially the Lea works, hit in 1940. After the war it became clear to the directors that fuel distribution was in decline, while gas production from coal was a shrinking market, so Carless placed the emphasis of its production on special boiling point spirits and on securing its own feedstocks.
Expansion led to site changes. The Company opened a new refinery at Harwich in 1964 and this took on gas condensate from North Sea Oil. In 1965 a refining and storage depot was established at Longport, Staffordshire. With increasing demands for capital, Carless Capel and Leonard became a public company in 1971. Carless Petroleum was established as subsidiary in 1973, and Carless was also involvedin on-shore fields at Humbly Grove and Wytch Farm. Production ceased at Hackney Wick in theearly 1970s and the administration moved from the Hope Works to Petrol House, formerly a dry cleaning factory owned by Lush and Cook. In 1979 theadministration moved again to Cannon Street and Petrol House was finally sold in 1984, ending the Company's Hackney connection. A distribution depot remained at Bow, on a site used by the Company since the 1930s. The major subsidiaries also moved - Carless Solvents to Romford in 1984 and Carless Petroleumto Colchester in 1977. The Company HQ moved twice more, ending at Long Acre from 1984.
In 1989 the Company was taken over and broken up. A new company, Carless Refining and Marketing, was established as a wholly owned subsidiary of Repsol at Romford.