Catalogue description Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of SIR HANS ADOLF KREBS, FRS (1900-1981)

This record is held by Sheffield University: Special Collections and Archives

Details of CSAC 113.4.86
Reference: CSAC 113.4.86
Title: Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of SIR HANS ADOLF KREBS, FRS (1900-1981)



A.1 -A.7 Obituaries


A.8 -A.22 Articles and tributes


A.23 -A.26 Bibliographies


A.27 -A.40 Scrapbooks


With an introductory note


A.41 -A.399 Diaries and jotters


With an introductory note


A.400 -A.714 Career, honours and awards


With an introductory note


A.715 -A.887 Family correspondence and papers


With an introductory note


A.888 -A.924 Hildesheim (City and school)


A.925 -A.966 Miscellaneous biographical items


A.967 -A.1062 Personal correspondence


A.1063-A.1083 Shorter autobiographical writings


A.1084-A.1278 Reminiscences and Reflections


With an introductory note


A.1279, A.1280 Press-cuttings




Introduction to Section B


B.1 -B.29 Pharmacology/Biochemistry Departments


B.30-B.40 Wartime research


With an introductory note


B.41-B.77 Funding and administration of Krebs's research


B.41-B.52 Rockefeller Foundation


With an introductory note


B.53-B.67 Medical Research Council Unit


With an introductory note


B.68-B.77 Miscellaneous


B.78-B.90 General University correspondence


B.91-B.104 Later contacts with Sheffield


With an introductory note




C.1 -C.96 Biochemistry Department


C.1 -C.34 General administration


C.35-C.58 Lectures


C.59-C.85 Building extension


C.86-C.96 Sub-departments


C.97 -C.182 Funding and administration of Krebs's research


C.97 -C.123 Medical Research Council Unit/Metabolic Research Laboratory


C.124-C.144 Financing bodies


C.145-C.182 Miscellaneous


C.183-C.240 Development of science of Oxford


With an introductory note


C.183-C.189 Development of Biology


C.190-C.201 'Oxford's needs in science'


With an introductory note


C.202-C.204 Biology centre


C.205-C.211 Zoology


C.212-C.236 Molecular Biophysics


C.237-C.240 Miscellaneous


C.241-C.334 University reform


With an introductory note


C.241-C.260 General correspondence and papers


C.261-C.273 Salaries


With an introductory note


C.274-C 278 Schedule A Professorships


C.279-C.328 Committees and Commissions of Inquiry


C.329-C.334 Publications


C.335-C.389 General University correspondence


C.335-C.361 Central administration


C.362-C.372 Electoral Boards


C.373-C.389 Libraries, departments, colleges and societies




Introduction to Section D


D.1 -D.45 Laboratory notebooks


With an introductory note


D.46 -D.100 Indexed notes and memoranda


With an introductory note


D.101-D.514 Research projects


With an introductory note and a list of contents


D.515-D.548 Miscellaneous notes


D.549-D.569 Bibliographical references




Introduction to Section E


E.1 -E.204 History and philosophy of science


E.205-E.315 Sociology of research


With an introductory note


E.316-E.492 Sociobiology


With an introductory note


E.493-E.501 Science and religion


E.502-E.507 Background material




Introduction to Section F




Introduction and list of contents




Introduction to Section H


H.1 -H.97 Publications


H.98 -H.271 Lectures


H.272-H.284 Broadcasts and television


H.285-H.446 Correspondence




Introduction to Section J






List of contents




With an introductory note






With an introductory note


The material fully documents all aspects of Krebs's career and is presented in the order shown in the List of Contents. Additional explanatory notes accompany many of the Sections, sub-sections and individual entries in the body of the catalogue. The following paragraphs aim only to draw attention to matters of particular substance or interest, since the material considerably expands the published accounts of Krebs's life and thought.


Krebs was of a naturally retentive disposition. He refers to this frequently in the drafts of his autobiography, one of which, written in 1975 under the rubric 'Collection of junk' and now included in A.1104, runs:


"Throughout my life I had a tendency not to throw things that I might care to see again or to use again away. This applied to all correspondence that contained personal and technical matters, all photographs, many drafts of papers, scientific notebooks of course, books, reprints, souvenirs of memorable occasions, newspaper cuttings, extracts of other readings, sayings, quotations (which I stuck into scrap books).


I kept no diaries except on special occasions, such as during the war years and during some of my travels."


Furthermore, the international acclaim which greeted the publication of the ornithine cycle work in 1932 had made him aware of the value of his research. Thus when he left Germany he was able to bring to England 'sixteen wooden boxes and several suitcases' of apparatus and also his notebooks and personal documents; and when he assembled the 'scrap books' referred to above, he added notes and comments linking the selected material to the events of his own life.


Section A (Biographical and autobiographical) is rich in material of this kind. It contains several 'scrap books', a very substantial number of engagement books, diaries and 'jotters' and full documentation of the long gestation of the eventual autobiography Reminiscences and Reflections. The events of Krebs's career, notably his successive moves to Warburg's laboratory, to Cambridge, Sheffield and Oxford are represented together with many other offers or applications for appointments. Of the many honours he received, pride of place goes to the Nobel Prize and his own careful recording of the event, and the concomitant ceremonies and correspondence. In addition to Krebs's own life, there is extensive correspondence and papers from the 1930s and later relating to his family and friends and reflecting on the suffering of the Jews in Germany, their enforced emigration to Britain, Palestine and America, renewal of contacts after the Second World War and claims of restitution from the German state.


Section B (Sheffield) is relatively short, but documents the funding of his research by the Rockefeller Foundation, the setting-up of his Medical Research Council Unit and the problems of establishing and running a biochemistry department. It includes Krebs's 'Reflections' on the history of the Sheffield department on the occasion of his resignation. The most important research discovery of the Sheffield period (the citric acid cycle) is recorded in his research notebooks in Section D, but Section B preserves correspondence and papers relating to the wartime research on nutrition and (very scantily) Krebs's ideas on carbon dioxide fixation.


Section C (Oxford) contains some not dissimilar material on the running (and in this case the major extension) of a university department and its sub-departments, Krebs's Medical Research Council Unit during and after his tenure of the Whitley Chair, and the funding of his research, including support from the Rockefeller Foundation. The Section is greatly extended and complicated, however, by Krebs's involvement in what he called 'debates on shortcomings'. These include his efforts to strengthen the development of science - and especially the biological sciences - in new or extended ways such as a 'Biology Centre', Zoology and Molecular Biophysics. Documents include not only Krebs's substantial unpublished account of the history of molecular biology at Oxford but photocopies of the relevant papers which the late J.W.S. Pringle (Linacre Professor of Zoology) made available to him. More general topics of 'University Reform' are salary and income structure, collegiate and non-collegiate appointments, the Robbins Committee, the National Incomes Commission and the Franks Commission; to all of these Krebs submitted memoranda for which drafts and background material survive. The records preserved here greatly expand Krebs's published writings on the subject at the time and later in his autobiography.


Section D (Research) is a very full record of the contributions to metabolic research made by Krebs and his collaborators over the long period 1926-81. It takes various forms - traditional laboratory notebooks, binders of dated and indexed notes, folders and boxes, and loose pages - and may include data and experimental results, records of discussions and information, reflections on work in hand or projected, drafts for publications, correspondence, extensive bibliographical references and background material usually annotated. The Section includes a photocopy of a laboratory notebook on the ornithine cycle research by Krebs's collaborator at Freiburg, K. Henseleit, and many pages of notes and results by long-term members of the Medical Research Council Unit, notably L.V. Eggleston, R. Hems and P. Lund.


Section E (Science-related interests) is one of the most interesting in the collection, since it gives substantial documentation of abiding interests of Krebs only briefly acknowledged in his own and other published accounts, and also contains much material for articles and lectures not listed in the extant bibliographies. The topics dealt with in the Section are history and philosophy of science (including considerable material on Otto Warburg), sociology of research (policy-making, funding, team-work and leadership, motivation and recognition), sociobiology and criminality, and the scientist's duty to bring his gifts to bear on social problems. Another note by Krebs of 1977 and now included in E.324 headed 'Why I concern myself with "Sociological" problems' may usefully be quoted here:


"People have asked me why I do not stick to my last (as Apelles, the Roman painter, shouted to the cobbler who criticised not only the shoes on his painting but also other matters) considering that I know little about sociology and that I had enough problems on my hands in connection with my research.


I am not only a scientist, but also a citizen, and as a citizen I have good reason to be worried about what I call the diseases of society. I hold the view that every citizen ought to contribute to the best of his ability to matters of public life, especially on the basis of his own professional experiences and skills. Having been trained as a physician and as a scientist I fancy, rightly or wrongly, that I can look upon problems of society from a special point of view, that of the medical scientist. It is also my view which I know is shared by others, that the great majority of those who profess sociological subjects are appallingly ignorant of the biology of Homo sapiens."


Section F (Visits and conferences) covers a long period (1933-81, with ongoing plans up to 1983) though in varying detail and with some overlap with material in other Sections. Krebs was in great demand as speaker, chairman or honoured guest, and he as an active scientist placed high value on the contacts and exchanges with colleagues offered by symposia, visits to institutions and laboratories and the like. Of special interest is the record 1962-77 of his visits to the annual international conferences on advances in enzyme regulation organised at Indianapolis, where he presented papers on his current research for publication in Advances in Enzyme Regulation.


Section G (Societies and organisations) includes some seventy British and overseas organisations. While some entries are relatively trivial, others are substantial sequences covering a lengthy timespan and matters of consequence such as research policy and grant applications. These include the Agricultural Research Council, the Biochemical Society, especially Krebs's chairmanship of the Society's Sub-committee on the Report of the Working Group on Molecular Biology, the Royal Society and the Science Research Council. There is also some material on organisations concerned with refugee scientists and with sociological matters.


Section H (Publications, lectures, broadcasts) brings together notes, drafts, correspondence and other related material for published and unpublished work 1927-81; it includes some book-reviews and some radio and television work. There is also an extensive sequence of correspondence with editors and publishers which testifies both to the many requests Krebs received to write or lecture which he was not able to accept and also to his long-term editorial commitments to two journals, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta and FEBS Letters.


Section J (Correspondence), though essentially confined to professional exchanges with colleagues and collaborators (personal correspondence being in Section A), is very extensive and diverse. It includes substantial exchanges with life-long friends such as H.K.F. Blaschko, D. Nachmansohn and F. Lipmann, and documents the careers of many younger scientists who spent some of their research years with Krebs and maintained contact with him as their careers developed. This material thus supplements and confirms the attention paid by Krebs in many of his writings to the concept of 'filiation' or 'scientific genealogy' in fostering scientific excellence, and his persuasion that his own Unit had been a step in such filiation.


The value placed on Krebs's judgment is shown by the very large number of requests for advice and references, which have been placed separately in Section K, subject to restricted access.


Section L, the last of the collection, is of non-print material and includes many photographs of Krebs, his family, colleagues and laboratories, sound-recordings and videotapes of lectures given by him. Of interest are the microfilms of transcripts of conversations between Krebs and the historian F.L. Holmes.


All references in the catalogue are to the Bibliography of 396 items which was published on microfiche to accompany the Royal Society Memoir, and to a Supplementary Bibliography of 11 items taken from the list of publications by members of the Metabolic Research Laboratory, Oxford, 1980-83. These bibliographies are listed, with permission, in the present catalogue.


This represents the latest information available on Krebs's published works. It supersedes the list of 356 items which Krebs published in his autobiography and the selection of only 121 items printed after the text of the Royal Society Memoir.


The manuscript collection contains considerable additional material relating to publications or to the intention to publish. This may range from a fully-prepared draft with references and figures ready for despatch to a journal to a reference in editorial correspondence. It applies especially, though not exclusively, to writings on social problems which were such a feature of Krebs's later years, but also includes such important scientific contributions as his Jayne Lectures, not to mention book-reviews and abstracts omitted from the canon. A separate list of catalogue entries for such material has been compiled and appears on pp. 671-72.




This aims to relate Krebs's publications as defined above to their principal sources in the manuscripts. Only the more extended references, to research, publications and reception of the work, ensuing correspondence and the like, are given. Passing allusions in correspondence or requests for reprints are omitted.


Compiled by Jeannine Alton and Peter Harper


The work of the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre, and the production of this catalogue, are made possible by the support of the following societies and institutions:


The Biochemical Society


The Charles Babbage Foundation for the History of Information Processing


The Institute of Physics


The Institution of Electrical Engineers


The Institution of Mechanical Engineers


The Nuffield Foundation


The Rhodes Trustees


The Royal Society of London


The Wolfson Foundation


The assembling and cataloguing of the collection have drawn on the time and goodwill of many. Particular thanks are due to:


Lady Krebs, for making the material available, for collecting family letters and documents from several sources, and for her many visits to provide information and encouragement over a long period;


Professor F. L. Holmes, for much invaluable information and advice, for his generosity in adding to the collection microfilm transcripts of his conversations with Krebs, microfilm copies of Krebs's laboratory notebooks, and the photocopy of a note-book of K. Henseleit, and for continuing visits and support;


Dr. D.H. Williamson and Mr. R. Hems for help in dealing with the research material, with special gratitude to Reg Hems for many visits of patient explanation and advice, for checking Section D and for making available a copy of his memorial address for Krebs;


Mr. C.K. Balmforth, Mr. M.S-M. Hannon and Mr. W.J. Hitchens of Sheffield University Library for mutual visits, help and encouragement;


Drs. Martin and Martina Jeningshausen-Lauster and Dr. C.J. Wells for help with manuscripts in German script;


Lady Phillips for invaluable assistance in the early stages of sorting and listing;


Miss M.J. Erskine for help with the index;


Mrs. M.M. Edwards, our long-term typist, for help with the conspectus and index and for more than usual patience with successive emendations and additions to the catalogue.

Date: 1890-1984
Held by: Sheffield University: Special Collections and Archives, not available at The National Archives
Language: English

Krebs, Sir, Hans Adolf, 1900-1981, Knight, scientist, biochemist and pharmocologist

Physical description: 257 boxes
Access conditions:








Immediate source of acquisition:

This very extensive collection has been brought together from several sources and at various dates between July 1982 and June 1986.


The main sources, made available by Lady Krebs, were Krebs's home at Iffley and his Metabolic Research Laboratory at the Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford. A little material was received from Dr. J.R. Krebs. Microfilm transcripts and photocopies of his own research material on the history of biochemistry were kindly provided by Professor F.L. Holmes.

Publication note:



The following Bibliography of 396 items is that which appears on microfiche to accompany the Royal Society Memoir (Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 30, 1984, 351 - 385). References in all sections of the catalogue are to this list, in the form (Bibliog....).


It should be noted that the Memoir itself refers only to a selection of 121 papers which are printed in a numbered list after the text. These numbers do not correspond to the Bibliography and have not been used in the compilation of the catalogue.


[1] 1923. Die Färbung des Skelettmuskels mit Anilinfarbstoffen. Arch. mikroskp. Anat. [Entw. Mech.] 97, 557.


[2] 1925. Zur Goldsolreaktion im Liquor cerebrospinalis. Klin. Wschr. 4. 1309.


[3] Die Flockung des kolloidalen Goldes durch Eiweisskörper. Biochem. Z. 159. 311.


[4] Die Theorie der Kolloidreaktionen im Liquor cerebrospinalis. Z. Immun. Forsch. exp. Ther. 44, 75.


[5] Zur Theorie der Weichbrodtschen Sublimatreaktion im Liquor cerebrospinalis. Dt. med. Wschr. 51, 1771.


[6] 1926. (With A. WITTGENSTEIN.) Studien zur Permeabilität der Meningen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung physikalisch-chemischer Gesichtspunkte. Z. ges. exp. Med. 49. 553.


[7] (With A. WITTGENSTEIN.) Untersuchungen über die Permeabilität der Meningen. Dt. med. Wschr. 52, 1161.


[8] (With A. WITTGENSTEIN.) Die Abwanderung intravenös eingeführter Substanzen aus dem Blutplasma. Ein Beitrag zum Permeabilitätsproblem und zur Theorie der Giftwirkung. I. und II. Mitteilung. Pflüger's Arch. ges. Physiol. 212, 268.


[9] (With A. WITTGENSTEIN.) Über die Abwanderung intravenös eingeführter Farbstoffe aus dem Blutplasma. Klin. Wschr. 5, 320.


[10] (With P. RONA.) Physikalisch-chemische Untersuchungen über die Isohämagglutination. I. Mitteilung: Die Bedeutung der Elektrolyte bei der Isohämagglutination. Biochem. Z. 169, 266.


[11] 1927. (With D. NACHMANSOHN.) Vitalfärbung und Adsorption. Biochem. Z. 186, 478.


[12] Über die Rolle der Schwermetalle bei der Autoxydation von Zuckerlösungen. Biochem. Z. 180, 377.


[13] Über den Stoffwechsel der Netzhaut. Biochem. Z. 189, 57.


[14] (With F. KUBOWITZ.) Über derr Stoffwechsel von Carcinomzellen in Carcinomserum und Normalserum. Biochem. Z. 189, 194.


[15] (With O. WARBURG.) Über locker gebundenes Kupfer und Eisen im Blutserum. Biochem. Z. 190, 143.


[16] Über den Stoffwechsel der Tumoren. Biologischen Zentralblatt 47, 59.


[17] 1928. Über das Kupfer im menschilchen Blutserum. Klin. Wschr. 7, 584.


[18] Über die Wirkung von Kohlenoxyd und Licht auf Häminkatalysen. Biochem. Z. 193, 347.


[19] Über die Chemische Konstitution des Atmungsferments. Klin. Wschr. 7, 1047.


[20] 1929. Über die Wirkung von Kohlenoxyd und Blausäure auf Hämatinkatalysen. Biochem. Z. 204, 322.


[21] Über die Wirkung der Schwermetalle auf die Autoxydation der Alkalisulfide und des Schwefelwasserstoffs. Biochem. Z. 204, 343.


[22] Stoffwechsel der Zellen und Gewebe. In: Methodik der wissenschaftlichen Biologie, Vol. 2, p. 1049.


[23] Über Hemmung einer Hämatinkatalyse durch Schwefelwasserstoff. Biochem. Z. 209, 32.


[24] (With J.F. DONEGAN.) Manometrische Messung der Peptidspaltung. Biochem. Z. 210, 7.


[25] 1930. Manometrische Messung des Kohlensäuregehaltes von Gasgemischen. Biochem. Z. 220, 250.


[26] Manometrische Messung der fermentativen Eiweisspaltung. Biochem. Z. 220, 283.


[27] Versuche über die proteolytische Wirkung des Papains. Biochem. Z. 220, 289.


[28] Über "Aktivierung" proteolytischer Fermente. Naturwissenschaften 18, 736.


[29] 1931. Über die proteolytische Wirkung von Papain und Kathepsin. Naturwissenschaften 19, 133.


[30] Über die Wirkung der Monojodessigsäure auf den Zellstoffwechsel. Biochem. Z. 234, 278.


[31] (With H. ROSENHAGEN.) Über den Stoffwechsel des Plexus chorioideus. Z. ges. Neurol. Psychiat. 134, 643.


[32] Manometrische Messung der Eiweisspaltung. In: Abderhalden's Handbuch der biologischen Arbeitsmethoden. Section IV. Part 1, p. 871.


[33] Über die Proteolyse der Tumoren. Biochem. Z. 238, 174.


[34] 1932. (With K. HENSELEIT.) Untersuchungen über die Harnstoffbildung im Tierkörper. Klin. Wschr. 11, 757.


[35] (With K. HENSELEIT.) Untersuchungen über die Harnstoffbildung im Tierkörper. II. Klin. Wschr. 11, 1137.


[36] (With K. HENSELEIT.) Untersuchungen über die Harnstoffbildung im Tierkörper. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. physiol. Chem. 210, 33.


[37] Untersuchungen über den intermediären Eiweisstoffwechsel.


Klin. Wschr. 11, 1692.


[38] Über den Stoffwechsel der Aminosäuren im Tierkörper. Klin. Wschr. 11, 1744.


[39] 1933. (H. WESTERKAMP.) Über Ketosäuren im Blutserum. Biochem. Z. 263, 239.


[40] (H. MANDERSCHEID.) Über die Harnstoffbildung bei den Wirbeltieren. Biochem. Z. 263, 245.


[41] Untersuchungen über den Stoffwechsel der Aminosäuren im Tierkörper. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. physiol. Chem. 217, 191.


[42] Weitere Untersuchungen über den Abbau der Aminosäuren im Tierkörper. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. physiol. Chem. 218, 157.


[43] (P. OSTERN.) Methode zur Bestimmung von Oxalessigsäure. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. physiol. Chem. 218, 160.


[44] (With H. EITEL and A. LOESER.) Hypophysenvorderlappen und Schilddrüse. Die Wirkung der thyreotropen Substanz des Hypophysenvorderlappens auf die Schilddrüse in vitro. Klin. Wschr. 12, 615.


[45] (With TH. BENZINGER.) Über die Harnsäuresynthese im Vogelorganismus. Klin. Wschr. 12, 1206.


[46] Grösse der Atmung und Gärung in lebenden Zellen. In: Oppenheimer's Handb. Biochem. 2. Auflage. Ergänzungswerk I. 863.


[47] Abbau der Fettsäuren. In: Oppenheimer's Handb. Biochem. 2. Auflage, Ergänzungswerk I, 936.


[48] Abbau der Aminosäuren. In: Oppenheimer's Handb. Biochem. 2. Auflage, Ergänzungswerk I, 939.


[49] Atmung und Gärung in lebenden Zellen. Tabul. Biol. III, 209.


[50] 1934. Über die Harnstoffbildung in der Leber. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. physiol. Chem. 230, 278.


[51] Urea formation in the animal body. Ergebn. Enzymforsch. III, 247.


[52] 1935. Metabolism of amino-acids. III. Deamination of amino-acids. Biochem. J. 29, 1620.


[53] Metabolism of amino-acids. IV. The synthesis of glutamine from glutamic acid and ammonia, and the enzymic hydrolysis of glutamine in animal tissues. Biochem J. 29, 1951.


[54] (With H. WEIL-MALHERBE.) Metabolism of amino-acids. V. The conversion of proline into glutamic acid in kidney. Biochem. J. 29, 2077.


[55] (With H. WELL.) Untersuchungen über die Urikolytischen Fermente (Uricase, Allantoinase, Allantoicase). In: Problèmes de Biologie et de Médecine, Éditions de l'État de la Littérature biologique et médicale, Moscou/Leningrad, p. 32.


[56] 1936. (With N.L. EDSON.) Micro-determination of uric acid. Biochem. J. 30, 732.


[57] (With N.L. EDSON and A. MODEL.) The synthesis of uric acid in the avian organism: hypoxanthine as an intermediary metabolite. Biochem. J. 30, 1380.


[58] Intermediate metabolism of carbohydrates. Nature Lond. 138, 288.


[59] Metabolism of amino acids and related substances. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 5, 247.


[60] 1937. (With W.A. JOHNSON.) Metabolism of ketonic acids in animal tissues. Biochem. J. 31, 645.


[61] Dismutation of pyruvic acid in Gonococcus and Staphylococcus. Biochem. J. 31, 661.


[62] (With W.A. JOHNSON.) The role of citric acid in intermediate metabolism in animal tissues. Enzymologia 4, 148.


[63] The intermediate metabolism of carbohydrates. Lancet 11, 736.


[64] (With W.A. JOHNSON.) Acetopyruvic acid ([alpha][gamma]-diketovaleric acid) as an intermediate metabolite in animal tissues. Biochem. J. 31, 772.


[65] The role of fumarate in the respiration of Bacterium coli' commune. Biochem. J. 31, 2095.


[66] Intermediary hydrogen-transport in biological oxidations. In: Perspectives in Biochemistry, Cambridge University Press, p. 150.


[67] 1938. Micro-determination of [alpha]-ketoglutaric acid. Biochem. J. 32, 108.


[68] (With E. SALVIN and W.A. JOHNSON.) The formation of citric and [alpha]-ketoglutaric acids in the mammalian body. Biochem. J. 32, 113.


[69] (With L.V. EGGLESTON.) The effect of insulin on oxidations in isolated muscle tissue. Biochem. J. 32, 913.


[70] Metabolism of amino acids and proteins. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 7, 189.


[71] 1939. (P.P. COHEN.) Microdetermination of glutamic acid. Biochem. J. 33, 551.


[72] (With Å. ÖRSTRÖM.) Microdetermination of hypoxanthine and xanthine. Biochem. J. 33, 984.


[73] (With Å. ÖRSTRÖM and M. ÖRSTRÖM.) The formation of hypoxanthine in pigeon liver. Biochem. J. 33, 990.


[74] (With Å. ÖRSTRÖM, M. ÖRSTRÖM and L.V. EGGLESTON.) The synthesis of glutamine in pigeon liver. Biochem. J. 33, 995.


[75] (W.A. JOHNSON.) Aconitase. Biochem. J. 33, 1046.


[76] (P.P. COHEN.) Transamination in pigeon breast muscle. Biochem. J. 33, 1478.


[77] The oxidation of d(+)proline by d-amino acid oxidase. Enzymologia 7, 53.


[78] (With L.V. EGGLESTON.) Bacterial urea formation. (Metabolism of Corynebacterium ureafaciens). Enzymologia 7, 310.


[79] With P.P. COHEN.) Metabolism of =293=-ketoglutaric acid in animal tissues. Biochem. J. 33, 1895.


[80] (With P.P. COHEN.) Glutamic acid as a hydrogen carrier in animal tissues. Nature, Lond. 144, 513.


[81] 1940. (With L.V. EGGLESTON.) The oxidation of pyruvate in pigeon breast muscle. Biochem. J. 34, 442.


[82] The citric acid cycle. Biochem. J. 34, 460.


[83] The citric acid cycle and the Szent-Györgyi cycle in pigeon breast muscle. Biochem. J. 34, 775.


[84] (E.A. EVANS, Jr.) The metabolism of pyruvate in pigeon liver. Biochem. J. 34, 829.


[85] (With D.H. SMYTH and E.A. EVANS, Jr.) Determination of fumarate and malate in animal tissues. Biochem. J. 34, 1041.


[86] (With L.V. EGGLESTON, A. KLEINZELLER and D.H. SMYTH.) The fate of oxaloacetate in animal tissues. Biochem. J. 34, 1234.


[87] (A. KLEINZELLER.) The effect of electrolytes on the respiration of pigeon breast muscle. Biochem. J. 34, 1241.


[88] (With L.V. EGGLESTON.) Biological synthesis of oxaloacetic acid from pyruvic acid and carbon dioxide. Biochem. J. 34, 1383.


[89] (D.H. SMYTH.) Vitamin B1 and the synthesis of oxaloacetate by Staphylococcus. Biochem. J. 34, 1598.


[90] 1941. Carbon dioxide assimilation in heterotrophic organisms. Nature, Lond. 147, 560.


[91] (A. KLEINZELLER.) The formation of succinic acid in yeast. Biochem. J. 35, 495.


[92] (With L.V. EGGLESTON.) Biological synthesis of oxaloacetic acid from pyruvic acid and carbon dioxide. 2. The mechanism of carbon dioxide fixation in propionic acid bacteria. Biochem. J. 35, 676.


[93] 1942. (With K. MELLANBY.) Digestibility of national wheatmeal. Lancet i, 319.


[94] (With D.M. STEPHENSON.) The utilisation of carbon dioxide by heterotrophic bacteria and animal tissues. Ann. Rep. Chem. Soc. 38, 257.


[95] The effect of inorganic salts on the ketone decomposition of oxaloacetic acid. Biochem. J. 36, 303.


[96] (With M.M. HAFEZ and L.V. EGGLESTON.) Indole formation in Bacterium coli commune. Biochem. J. 36, 306.


[97] Urea formation in mammalian liver. Biochem. J. 36, 758.


[98] 1943. The intermediary stages in the biological oxidation of carbohydrate. Adv. Enzymol. 3, 191.


[99] Urea synthesis in mammalian liver. Nature, Lond. 151, 23.


[100] Carbon dioxide assimilation in heterotrophic organisms. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 12, 529.


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[272] (With L.V. EGGLESTON.) Strain differences in the activities of rat liver enzymes. Biochem. J. 114, 877.


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[288] (With D.H. WILLIAMSON, M. STUBBS, M.A. PAGE, H.P. MORRIS and G. WEBER.) Metabolism of renal tumors in situ and during ischemia. Cancer Res. 30, 2049.


[289] (With H.F. WOODS and L.V. EGGLESTON.) The cause of hepatic accumulation of fructose 1-phosphate on fructose loading. Biochem. J. 119, 501.


[290] (With R. HEMS.) Fatty acid metabolism in the perfused rat liver. Biochem. J. 119, 525.


[291] Sir Archibald Garrod. In: Oxford Medicine, p. 127. Sandford Publications, Oxford.


[292] Intermediary metabolism of animal tissue between 1911 and 1969. In: British Biochemistry Past and Present (Ed. T.W. Goodwin), p. 123. Academic Press, New York.


[293] The history of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Perspect. Biol. Med. 14, 154.


[294] Warburg - architect of modern biology. New Scientist, 20 August, p. 375.


[295] 1971. (With D.H. WILLIAMSON, M.W. BATES and M.A. PAGE.) Activities of enzymes involved in acetoacetate utilization in adult mammalian tissues. Biochem. J. 121, 41.


[296] (With M.A. PAGE and D.H. WILLIAMSON.) Activities of enzymes of ketone-body utilization in brain and other tissues of suckling rats. Biochem. J. 121, 49.


[297] Professor Otto Warburg. Naturw. Rdsch. 24, 1.


[298] How the whole becomes more than the sum of the parts. Perspect. Biol. Med. 14, 448.


[299] (With R.A. HAWKINS and D.H. WILLIAMSON.) Ketone-body utilization by adult and suckling rat brain in vivo. Biochem. J. 122, 13.


[300] Some facts of life - biology and politics. Proc. Roy. Instn. Gt. Br. 44, 169.


[301] (With H.F. WOODS.) Lactate production in the perfused rat liver. Biochem. J. 125, 129.


[302] Gluconeogenesis and redox state. In: Regulation of Gluconeogenesis (Ed. H.-D. Söling and B. Willms), p. 114. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart; Academic Press, New York.


[303] Reflections on the role of tryptophan derivatives on metabolic regulations. In: Metabolic Effects of Nicotinic Acid and its Derivatives (Ed. K.F. Gey and L.A. Carlson), p. 1115. Hans Huber Publishers, Bern.


[304] Die Bedeutung der Grundlagenforschung für die Medizin. In: Biochemie und Klinik des Insulinmangels 6. Symposion der Forschergruppe Diabetes 1970 (Ed. O. Wieland, H. Mehnert and F. Lynen), p.1. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.


[305] (With D.H. WILLIAMSON, M.W. BATES, M.A. PAGE and R.A. HAWKINS.) The role of ketone bodies in caloric homeostasis. Adv. Enzyme Reg. 9, 387.


[306] (With R.A. HAWKINS, K.G.M.M. ALBERTI, C.R.S. HOUGHTON and D.H. WILLIAMSON.) The effect of acetoacetate on plasma insulin concentration. Biochem. J. 125, 541.


[307] 1972. (With M. STUBBS and R.L. VEECH.) Control of the redox state of the nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide couple in rat liver cytoplasm. Biochem. J. 126, 59.


[308] (With J.F. BIEBUYCK and P. LUND.) The effects of halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1, 1, 1-trifluoroethane) on glycolysis and biosynthetic processes of the isolated perfused rat liver. Biochem. J. 128, 711.


[309] (With J.F. BIEBUYCK and P. LUND.) The protective effect of oleate on metabolic changes produced by halothane in rat liver. Biochem. J. 128, 721.


[310] Some aspects of the regulation of fuel supply in omnivorous animals. Adv. Enzyme Reg. 10, 397.


[311] Otto Meyerhof's ancestry. In: Molecular Bioenergetics and Macromolecular Biochemistry (Ed. H.H. Weber), p.14. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.


[312] Der Pasteur-Effekt und die Beziehungen zwischen Atmung und Gärung in lebenden Zellen. Naturw. Rdsch. 25, 387.


[313] Some facts of life - biology and politics. Perspect. Biol. Med. 15, 491.


[314] Wissenschaftliche Forschung in der heutigen Medizin. Verh. Dt. Ges. inn. Med. 78, 1.


[315] (With J.T. HUGHES and D. JERROME.) Ultrastructure of the avian retina. An anatomical study of the retina of the domestic pigeon (Columba liva) with particular reference to the distribution of mitochondria. Exp. Eye Res. 14, 189.


[316] The Pasteur effect and the relations between respiration and fermentation. Essays Biochem. 8, 1.


[317] Otto Heinrich Warburg 1883-1970. Biogr. Mem. Fellows Roy. Soc. 18, 629.


[318] 1973. (With H.F. WOODS.) The effect of glycerol and dihydroxyacetone on hepatic adenine nucleotides. Biochem. J. 132, 55.


[319] The discovery of the ornithine cycle of urea synthesis. Biochem. Educ. 1, 19.


[320] (With H.F. WOODS.) Xylitol metabolism in the isolated perfused rat liver. Biochem. J. 134, 437.


[321] (With N.W. CORNELL, P. LUND and R. HEMS.) Acceleration of gluconeogenesis from lactate by lysine. Biochem. J. 134, 671.


[322] (With R. HEMS and P. LUND.) Accumulation of amino acids by the perfused rat liver in the presence of ethanol. Biochem. J. 134, 697.


[323] (With R. HEMS and P. LUND.) Some regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of urea in the mammalian liver. Adv. Enzyme Reg. 11, 361.


[324] Two letters by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen. Notes Rec. Roy. Soc. Lond. 28, 83.


[325] (With R. HEMS and P. LUND.) Regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of urea. In: Inborn Errors of Metabolism (Ed. F. Hommes and C.J. van den Berg), p. 201. Academic Press, London.


[326] Pyridine nucleotides and rate control. In: Rate Control of Biological Processes, Vol. XXVII, Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology, p.299. Cambridge University Press.


[327] 1974. (With L.V. EGGLESTON.) Regulation of the pentose phosphate cycle. Biochem. J. 138, 425.


[328] (With D.F. WILSON, M. STUBBS, R.L. VEECH and M. ERECINSKA.) Equilibrium relations between the oxidation-reduction reactions and the adenosine triphosphate synthesis in suspensions of isolated liver cells. Biochem. J. 140, 57.


[329] (With L.V. EGGLESTON.) The regulation of the pentose phosphate cycle in rat liver. Adv. Enzyoe Reg. 12, 421.


[330] (With N.W. CORNELL and P. LUND.) The effect of lysine on gluconeogenesis from lactate in rat hepatocyted. Biochem. J. 142, 327.


[331] Metabolic requirements of isolated organs. Transplantn. Proc. 6, 237.


[332] (With N.W. CORNELL, P. LUND and R. HEMS.) Some aspects of hepatic energy metabolism. In: Regulation of Hepatic Metabolism, Alfred Benzon Symposium VI, (Ed. F. Lundquist and N. Tygstrup), p. 549. Munksgaard, Copenhagen.


[333] (With N.W. CORNELL, P. LUND and R. HEMS.) Isolated liver cells as experimental material. In: Regulation of Hepatic Metabolism, Alfred Benzon Symposium VI, (Ed. F. Lundquist and N. Tygstrup), p. 726. Munksgaard, Copenhagen.


[334] On the overuse and misuse of medication. Executive Health XI, No. 2.


[335] The discovery of carbon dioxide fixation in mammalian tissues. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 5, 79.


[336] (With F. LIPMANN.) Dahlem in the late nineteen twenties. In: Lipmann Symposium: Energy, Biosynthesis and Regulation in Molecular Biology. p. 7. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.


[337] 1975. (With H.F. WOODS and K.G.M.M. ALBERTI.) Hyperlactataemia and lactic acidosis. Essays Med. Biochem. 1, 81.


[338] (With P. VINAY.) Regulation of renal ammonia production. Med. Clin. of N. Amer. 59, 595.


[339] (With M. STUBBS.) The accumulation of aspartate in the presence of ethanol in rat liver. Biochem. J. 150, 41.


[340] (With R. HEMS and P. LUND.) Rapid separation of isolated hepatocytes or similar tissue fragments for analysis of cell constituents. Biochem. J. 150, 47.


[341] The role of chemical equilibria in organ function. Adv. Enzyme Reg. 13, 449.


[342] (With M. STUBBS.) Factors controlling the rate of alcohol disposal by the liver. In: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal (Ed. M.M. Gross), p. 149. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.


[343] (With J.H. SHELLEY (eds.) The Creative Process in Science and Medicine. International Congress Series No. 355. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.


[344] (With P. LUND and N.W. CORNELL.) Effect of adenosine on the adenine nucleotide content and metabolism of hepatocytes. Biochem. J. 152, 593.


[345] The August Krogh Principle: "For many problems there is an animal on which it can be most conveniently studied". J. Exp. Zool. 194, 221.


[346] The metabolism of ethanol. In: Topics in Gastroenterology, Vol. 2 (Ed. S.C. Truelove and J. Trowell), p. 283. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.


[347] 1976. (With P. LUND and M. STUBBS.) Interrelations between gluconeogenesis and urea synthesis. In: Gluconeogenesis (Ed. R.W. Hanson and M.A. Mehlman), p. 269. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.


[348] (With R. HEMS.) The regulation of the degradation of methionine and of the one-carbon units derived from histidine, serine and glycine. Adv. Enzyme Reg. 14, 493.


[349] Concentration gradients between mitochondrial matrix and cytosol in the liver cell. In: Use of Isolated Liver Cells and Kidney Tubules in Metabolic Studies (Ed. J.M. Tager, H.D. Söling and J.R. Williamson), p. 3. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam.


[350] (With R. HEMS and B. TYLER.) The regulation of folate and methionine metabolism. Biochem. J. 158, 341.


[351] The discovery of the ornithine cycle. In: The Urea Cycle (Ed. S. Grisolia, R. Baguena and F. Mayor), p. 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.


[352] Soziologische Fragen der wissenschaftlichen Forschung. In: Vorlesungareihe Schering, p. 103. Pharma Forschung der Schering AG, Berlin.


[353] Comments on the productivity of scientists. In: Reflections on Biochemistry (Ed. A. Kornberg et al.), p.415. Pergamon Press, Oxford.


[354] Festrede zur Feier des 750 jährigen Bestehens des Gymnasium Andreanum Hildesheim, 29th November 1975, p.3. Gebrüder Gerstenberg, Hildesheim.


[355] 1977. (With P. LUND.) Aspects of the regulation of the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. Adv. Enzyme Reg. 15, 375.


[356] Errors, false trails, and failures in research. In: Search and Discovery. A tribute to Albert Szent-Györgyi, p.3. Academic Press, Inc., New York.


[357] Getting to the root cause of delinquency. In: The Times, 26 April.


[358] 1978. (With J. VIÑA and R. HEMS.) Maintenance of glutathione content in isolated hepatocytes. Biochem. J. 170, 627.


[359] (With R. HEMS and J. VIÑA.) Regulation of the hepatic concentration of reduced glutathione. In: Functions of Glutathione in Liver and Kidney (Ed. H. Sies and A. Wendel), p.8. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.


[360] (With J. VIÑA and R. HEMS.) Reaction of formiminoglutamate with liver glutamate dehydrogenase. Biochem. J. 170, 711.


[361] (With P. VINAY and J.P. MAPES.) Fate of glutamine carbon in renal metabolism. Amer. J. Physiol. 234, F123.


[362] (With J.P. MAPES.) Rate-limiting factors in urate synthesis and gluconeogenesis in avian liver. Biochem. J. 172, 193.


[363] (With M. STUBBS and P.V. VIGNAIS.) Is the adenine nucleotide translocator rate-limiting for oxidative phosphorylation? Biochem. J. 172, 333.


[364] Some general considerations concerning the use of carbohydrates in parenteral nutrition. In: Advances in Parenteral Nutrition (Ed. I.D.A. Johnston), p. 23. MTP Press.


[365] Regulatory mechanisms in purine biosynthesis. Adv. Enzyme Reg. 16, 409.


[366] (With D. WIGGINS.) Phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate in the mitochondrial matrix. Biochem. J. 174, 297.


[367] Regulation of the concentration of low molecular constituents in compartments. In: Microenvironments and Metabolic Compartmentation, p.3. Academic Press, Inc., New York.


[368] (With R. HEMS, P. LUND, D. HALLIDAY and W.W.C. READ.) Sources of ammonia for mammalian urea synthesis. Biochem. J. 176, 733.


[369] 1979. (With P. LUND.) Isolated hepatocytes as experimental material. In: Topics in Gastroenterology, Vol. 6, p.273. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.


[370] (With P. LUND.) Metabolic properties of the isolated enterocyte. In: Topics in Gastroenterology (Ed. S.C. Truelove and C.P. Willoughby) Vol. 7, p. 273. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.


[371] (With M. WATFORD and P. LUND.) Isolation and metabolic characteristics of rat and chicken enterocytes. Biochem. J. 178, 589.


[372] (With G.M. SAINSBURY, M. STUBBS and R. HEMS.) Loss of cell constituents from hepatocytes on centrifugation. Biochem. J. 180, 685.


[373] Zur Biologie der Jugendkriminalität. Wirtschaftspolitische Chronik 1, 27.


[374] On asking the right kind of question in biological research. In: Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Recognition (Ed. M. Balaban), p.27. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.


[375] Otto Warburg: Zellphysiologe, Biochemiker, Mediziner. Wissenschaftliche Verlagagesellschaft mbH, Stuttgart.


[376] (With P. LUND and M. EDWARDS.) Criteria of metabolic competence of isolated hepatocytes. In: Cell Populations: Methodological Surveys (B) Biochemistry (Ed. E. Reid), Vol. 9, p.1. Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester.


[377] 1980. (With H. TAEGTMEYER and R. HEMS.) Utilization of energy-providing substrates in the isolated working rat heart. Biochem. J. 186, 701.


[378] (With G. BAVEREL and P. LUND.) Effect of bicarbonate on glutamine metabolism. Int. J. Biochem. 12, 69.


[379] Zur Biologie der Jugendkriminalität. Sozialpädiatrie 2, 252.


[380] (With J.R. KREBS.) The "August Krogh Principle". Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 67B, 379.


[381] Glutamine metabolism in the animal body. In: Glutamine: Metabolism, Enzymology and Regulation (Ed. J. Mora and R. Palacios), p.319. Academic Press.


[382] Wie ich aus Deutschland vertrieben wurde.Dokumente mit Kommentaren. Medizinhistorisches Journal 15, 357.


[383] On the biology of juvenile delinquency: comments on the essay-by Felton Earls, "The social reconstruction of adolescence: toward an explanation for increasing rates of violence in youth". Perspect. Biol. Med. 23, 179.


[384] 1981. Otto Warburg (1883-1970). Oxford University Press. (English translation of [375]).


[385] (With J.E. BALDWIN.) The evolution of metabolic cycles. Nature. Lond. 291, 381.


[386] Evolutionary concepts in biological thought. In: Metabolism and Clinical Implications of Branched Chain Amino and Ketoacids (Ed. Walser and Williamson), p.3. Elsevier North Holland Inc. Amsterdam.


[387] The evolution of metabolic pathways. In: Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Microbial Evolution (Ed. Carlile, Collins and Moseley), p.215. Cambridge University Press.


[388] (With J.R. KREBS.) The "August Krogh Principle". Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 70B, 385.


[389] Response. Current Topics Cell. Reg. 18, 555.


[390] Biological and medical aspects of juvenile delinquency. In: New Horizons of Human Knowledge, p.79. UNESCO Press, Paris.


[391] Reminiscences and Reflections. Clarendon Press, Oxford.


[392] 1982. The discovery of the ornithine cycle of urea synthesis. Trends Biochem. Sci. 7, 76.


[393] (With D. WIGGINS and P. LUND.) Adaptation of urate synthesis in chicken liver. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 72B, 565.


[394] (With K. DECKER.) Feodor Lynen 1911-1979. Biogr. Mem. Fellows Roy. Soc. 28, 261.


[395] 1983. (With J. VIÑA, G.T. SAEZ, D. WIGGINS, A.F.C. ROBERTS and R. HEMS.) The effect of cysteine oxidation on isolated hepatocytes. Biochem. J. 212, 39.


[396] (With D. WIGGINS, M. STUBBS, A. SOLS and F. BEDOYA.) Studies on the mechanism of the antifungal action of benzoate. Biochem. J. 214, 657.




Listed here are additional papers by Krebs, 1980-82. Titles and descriptions are taken from the list of publications from the Metabolic Research Laboratory, Oxford, 1980-83; the complete list is at A.26.


References to these papers in the catalogue are in the form (SUPP, Bibliog. no. ...).


20a. Gedenkworte für Feodor Lynen


In: Reden und Gedenkworte, pp. 39-42, Verlag Lambert Schneider, Heidelberg, 1980.


21. Gesellschaftskrankheiten - Jugenkriminalität vom biologisch-medizinischen Gesichtspunkt.


Der Kassenarzt 20, 44, 1980.


22. Jugendkriminalität vom biologisch-medizinischen Gesichtspunkt.


Deutsche Krankenpflegezeitschrift 10, 1980.


23. Biotechnology and values: how to arrive at sound value judgments.


International Cultural Foundation, 1980.


33. Biological aspects of juvenile delinquency.


In: Stress, 1, No.1, 7-9, 1980.


37. On asking the right kind of question in biological research.


In: Rheinisch-Westfälische Akademie der Wissenschaften 300, 7-30, 1981.


44. Introductory remarks.


Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 293, 3-4, 1981.


56. Biotechnology and Values: How to arrive at sound value judgments. Social Science for Summer 1981.


57. Sessional Chairman's remarks.


Neurochem. Int. 2, 13, 1980.


58. Biological aspects of juvenile delinquency. (N.B. Duplicate of no.33.)


In: Stress 1, 7-9, 1980.


62. Zur Evolution des Citronensäurezyklus.


Naturw. Runds. 6, 225-228, 1982.




The collection contains considerable material which relates to publications unlisted in the Bibliography or Supplementary Bibliography, or which indicates an intention to publish. This material may range from a fully-prepared draft with references and figures ready for despatch to a journal to a reference in editorial correspondence. It applies especially, though not exclusively, to writings on social problems which were such a feature of Krebs's later years, but also includes such scientific contributions as his Jayne Lectures, as well as book reviews, abstracts, short notes and letters to the press omitted from the canon.


The relevant catalogue entry numbers are presented by Section.


A.437; A.440; A.453; A.903; A.909 - A.911; A.1081


B.34; B.95


C.28; C.228; C.267; C.329 - C.334


D.137; D.151; D.158; D.211; D.286; D.307; D.322; D.407; D.428; D.474; D.502 - D.505


E.11; E.15; E.72; E.131; E.136 - E.142; E.158; E.174; E.223; E 244 - E.247; E.248; E.249 - E 255; E.261; E.288 - E 290; E.291 - E.297; E.306; E.363 - E.365; E.366; E 374 - E.377; E.381; E.395; E.415; E.427 - E.433; E.444 - E.446


Note of additional publications


F.68; F.236; F.328 - F.330; F.336 - F.340


G.15; G.236


H.2; H.4; H.10; H.15; H.16; H.17; H.22; H.26; H.29; H.30; H.32; H.33; H.34; H.35; H.38; H.39; H.41; H.42; H.43; H.44; H.45; H.62; H.78; H.80; H.94; H.95; H.140; H 148; H.229 - H.242; H.279; H.291 - H.295; H.304; H.305; H.321; H.329; H.339 - H.341; H 344; H.359; H.361; H.364; H.381; H.388; H.393; H.394; H.397; H.398; H.400; H 402; H.404; H.412; H.415; H.419; H.420; H.421


J 29; J.35; J.145; J.297; J.354; J.507; J.535; J.789; J.840

  • Biochemistry
  • Pharmacology
Administrative / biographical background:

Krebs, a pioneer of research in intermediary metabolism and an internationally-respected figure in biochemistry, died in 1981, the same year that his autobiography Reminiscences and Reflections was published. A further account of his life and work by two long-term colleagues, H.L. Kornberg and D.H. Williamson, appeared in 1984 (Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 30, 349-387). These recent and accessible sources, which have been drawn upon throughout the compilation of this catalogue, make it unnecessary to give more than a brief rehearsal of the facts of Krebs's career.


He was born in 1900 to a Jewish family in Hildesheim, where his father was a doctor. After studies at the universities of Göttingen, Freiburg and Munich he began a career as a medical graduate in Berlin with P. Rona, until the decisive step of his appointment as Research Assistant to Otto Warburg (1926-30) who strongly influenced him. Subsequently he worked briefly at Altona, then accepted an offer from S. Thannhause to join the Department of Medicine at Freiburg where he worked from April 1931 and where his first major work, the discovery of the ornithine cycle, was completed and met with immediate international recognition on its publication in 1932.


The following year saw the rise to power of the Nazi party, Krebs's suspension and dismissal from his post, and the start of a new career in England in the laboratory of Gowland Hopkins at Cambridge. In 1935 Krebs moved to Sheffield. Here his second major research discovery, of the citric or tricarboxylic acid cycle, was made; here also was created, from 1945, the Medical Research Council Unit for Research in Cell Metabolism which remained in being as the focus of his research and the base of his 'team' until his retirement in 1967. During the Sheffield period two of the greatest honours of the scientific world were awarded him - Fellowship of the Royal Society in 1947 and the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine (jointly with F. Lipmann) in 1953. In private life it was also the period of his marriage and the birth of his three children.


In 1954 he accepted the Whitley Chair of Biochemistry at Oxford and moved there, with his Unit and many of his 'team', until 1967, the year of his official 'retirement'. In his autobiography Krebs uses inverted commas for the chapter on this subject, since he continued to work, still funded by the Medical Research Council and by other research grants and still with some at least of his original Sheffield 'team', in the Metablic Research Laboratory sited in the Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford. His research continued to focus on physiological biochemistry and the regulation of biochemical processes, but he developed an increasing interest in the history and philosophy of science, its methodology and sociology, and in sociobiology and criminality. He was hard at work on all these topics, with a full programme planned ahead for publications and visits, when he died after a short illness.

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