The Sheffield Gas Light Co. was established by Act of Parliament in May 1818. Its original gas works was at Shude Hill, while the offices were stationed in Haymarket Lane. Due to poor gas quality a group initially calling themselves the Consumers' Gas Co. and then in 1835 the Sheffield New Gas Co. challenged the original company. The rival company managed to pass the Sheffield Gas Act 1835 and commenced operations in Effingham St. However, intense competition risked ruining both competitors and so they merged creating the Sheffield United Gas Light Co. through the Sheffield Gas Act 1844. A new holder was built on the intersection of Arundel and Earl Streets to cope with demand in the 1840s. A new Company the Gas Consumers' Co. was formed as a rival in 1852. It had no legal power to lay pipes, but proceeded to construct a new works at Neepsend, until another merger took place through the Sheffield Gas Act 1855. The Sheffield Gas Act 1866 allowed for expansion of the gas works. Neepsend was expanded, a new works was erected at Grimesthorpe (aka Brightside) to the North-East and supply was extended to Totley, Dore, Beauchief and parts of Rotherham. New offices were erected in Commercial St in 1875. Under a 1917 Act of Parliament the Company name became the Sheffield Gas Co. and it set about acquiring gas works in the region to create a large supply network that became known as the Sheffield Grid. Consequently, Tinsley Park Colliery Co. (1918), Orgreave Colliery (1918), Rother Valley Colliery Co. (1919), United Stell Companies (1919), Nunnery Colliery Co. (1928), High Hazels Colliery and Thorncliffe Coal Distillation Co. were all purchased within a short period. Due to mounting opposition from the rival South Yorkshire Gas Grid Co. Ltd the Sheffield Gas Co. re-inforced their power through the Sheffield Gas Grid Act 1931. In 1924 the purchase of Dronfield Gas Light and Coke Co. and Handsworth Woodhouse Gas Co. Ltd indicated Sheffield's intention to take over large gas works and these were followed by Elsecar, Wentworth and Hoyland Gas Co. (1932), Baslow Gas Light and Coke Co. (1933), Matlock and District Gas Co. (1935), Matlock Bath Gas Undertaking (1935), Bakewell UDC (1936), Barnsley Gas Co. (1937), Eckington and Mosborough Gas Co. Ltd (1940) and Killamarsh Gas Light and Coke Co. Ltd (1940). The Company change its name to the Sheffield and District Gas Co. and opened the Wincobank Holder in 1938.
On nationalisation in 1949, Sheffield joined the Sheffield sub-division of the Sheffield and Rotherham division of the EMGB.