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Churchill, Spencer- family, Dukes of Marlborough

This page summarises records created by this Family

The summary includes a brief description of the collection(s) (usually including the covering dates of the collection), the name of the archive where they are held, and reference information to help you find the collection.

Date: 1100-2000
History:

John Churchill (1650-1722), general and statesman, was created Duke of Marlborough in 1702, and was granted the manor of Woodstock and hundred of Wootton (Oxfordshire). He began the construction of Blenheim Palace near Woodstock in 1705. In 1678 he had married Sarah, daughter and co-heir of Richard Jennings of Sandridge (Hertfordshire). The properties inherited by her, however, together with the estates purchased by her in Surrey and other counties, passed at her death in 1744 to her grandson John Spencer, younger brother of the 5th Earl of Sunderland (see Spencer, Earls Spencer).

Estates in Wiltshire (Overton, Lockeridge, West Lavington, etc) were acquired from 1709 onwards, and estates in Buckinghamshire (Waddesdon, etc) in 1725. In 1722 the Duke of Marlborough was succeeded in the dukedom and the Blenheim estates by his eldest daughter Henrietta, wife of the 2nd Earl of Godolphin. On her death in 1733 they passed to her nephew Charles Spencer, 5th Earl of Sunderland as 3rd Duke of Marlborough (see Spencer, Earls Spencer, and, for the descent of the Godolphin estates, Osborne, Dukes of Leeds).

In 1751 the 3rd Duke purchased the Cornbury (Oxfordshire) estate, but this, with West Lavington, was settled on a younger son of the 4th Duke, created Baron Churchill in 1815. The Blenheim estates in Oxfordshire were consolidated between the late 18th and mid-19th centuries, but the remaining Wiltshire estates were reduced by sales c.1866-77, and the Buckinghamshire estate was sold to Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild in 1875. Property in Sussex was acquired by Lord Robert Spencer, third son of the 3rd Duke, in the late 18th century, but passed out of the family on his death in 1831.

Estates in 1883: Oxon 21,944 acres, Wilts 1,534 acres, Berks 33 acres, total 23,511 acres worth £36,557 a year.

Places:
  • Agney, Kent
  • Bath, Somerset
  • Begbroke, Oxfordshire
  • Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire
  • Cassington, Oxfordshire
  • Charlbury, Oxfordshire
  • Cople, Bedfordshire
  • Hensington, Oxfordshire
  • Ingoldsby, Lincolnshire
  • Langley, Buckinghamshire
  • Lockeridge, Wiltshire
  • Marlborough House, London
  • North Leigh, Oxfordshire
  • Overton, Wiltshire
  • Rowde, Wiltshire
  • Sandridge, Hertfordshire
  • Sunderland House, London
  • Upper Winchendon, Buckinghamshire
  • Waddesdon, Buckinghamshire
  • West Lavington, Wiltshire
  • Witney, Oxfordshire
  • Woodstock, Oxfordshire
  • Woolbeding, Sussex
Sources of authority: Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, Guide to principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999
Name authority reference: GB/NNAF/F88850 (Former ISAAR ref: GB/NNAF/F10792 )
Collections
  Description Held by Reference Further information
1
12th cent-20th cent: Oxon (Blenheim Palace, North Leigh, Witney, Woodstock, etc) deeds 13th-20th cent and manorial records, estate, household and Churchill, Spencer and Spencer-Churchill family papers 16th-20th cent, incl Trevor family papers 18th cent, with Beds (Cople, etc) estate papers mid 18th cent, Bucks (Waddesdon, etc) deeds 12th-19th cent and estate papers 18th-19th cent, Wilts (Lockeridge, West Lavington, etc) deeds and manorial, estate and household papers 16th-19th cent, misc deeds and papers rel to Lincs (Ingoldsby, etc), London and Sussex (Woolbeding, etc) estates 17th-19th cent and to Jennings family property in Herts (Sandridge, etc), Kent (Agney) and London 14th-18th cent and household papers for Langley (Bucks) 1721, c1756, Upper Winchendon (Bucks) 1789, London (Marlborough House 1709-10, 1740 and Sunderland House 1722), Hensington (Oxon) c1767-70 and Bath (Somerset) 1783, etc
Blenheim Palace
NRA 8130 Churchill

See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98a]
2
1705-1727: Blenheim Palace (Oxon) building papers
British Library, Manuscript Collections
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98c]
3
1790-1866: Oxon (Blenheim Palace, etc) deeds, legal and estate papers
Oxford University: Bodleian Library, Special Collections
NRA 3966 Cope

See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98h]
4
1761: Charlbury and Walcot (Oxon) estate survey
Oxford University: Bodleian Library, Special Collections
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98i]
5
1722-1809: Blenheim Palace (Oxon) building papers 1722-32 and papers of Joseph Brooks of Woodstock (Oxon) as agent of the 4th Duke of Marlborough mainly 1798-1809
Berkshire Record Office
NRA 10469 Stevens

See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98l]
6
1705-1710: Blenheim Palace (Oxon) garden accounts
Unknown location
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98m]
7
1736-1746: misc Potton (Beds) deeds and papers
Bedfordshire Archives & Records Service
NRA 6970 Bedfordshire misc
8
1758-1812: Wilts (West Lavington, etc) estate surveys and valuation
Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre
NRA 881 Elwell

See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98k]
9
17th cent-19th cent: Wilts (Lockeridge, Overton, Rowde, West Lavington, etc) legal and estate papers
Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre
NRA 881 Elwell
10
16th cent-19th cent: Churchill, Spencer and Spencer-Churchill family legal, military, official, political and personal papers, incl papers of the 1st Duke of Marlborough (1650-1722), Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough (1660-1744) and Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland (d1722) 16th-19th cent, with papers of the Trevor family 17th-18th cent
British Library, Manuscript Collections
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98b]
11
1698-1784: misc Churchill and Spencer-Churchill family papers, mainly of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough (1660-1744)
British Library, Manuscript Collections
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98e]
12
1706-1926: misc Churchill, Spencer and Spencer-Churchill family letters
Library of Congress, Manuscript Division
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98t]
13
early 18th cent: Churchill family trust papers
Northamptonshire Record Office
NRA 10410 Spencer

See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [97a]
14
c1740-1770: Churchill and Spencer-Churchill family settlement and trust papers
Woburn Abbey
NRA 26179 Russell

See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [90i]
15
1697-1714: corresp and papers of the 1st Duke of Marlborough (1650-1722) and Adam Cardonnel (d1719)
British Library, Manuscript Collections
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98d]
16
1711-1718: letters of the 1st Duke of Marlborough (1650-1722) and Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough (1660-1744)
British Library, Manuscript Collections
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98f]
17
1781-1797: astronomical corresp and papers of the 4th Duke of Marlborough (1739-1817)
British Library, Manuscript Collections
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98g]
18
1705: journal of Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland (d1722)
Oxford University: Bodleian Library, Special Collections
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98j]
19
1697-1714: corresp and papers of the 1st Duke of Marlborough (1650-1722)
British Library, Manuscript Collections
NRA 29995

See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98n]
20
1737-1741: legal corresp of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough (1660-1744)
Yale University Libraries: Beinecke Library
NRA 18661 Osborn coll

See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98o]
21
1704-1724: misc accounts and papers of the 1st Duke of Marlborough (1650-1722) and Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough (1660-1744)
Hove Central Library
NRA 10471 Wolseley

See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98p]
22
1704-1710: American papers of the 3rd Earl of Sunderland (d1722)
Huntington Library
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98q]
23
further papers of the 3rd Earl of Sunderland (d1722)
Maryland Historical Society
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98q]
24
mainly late 18th cent: astronomical papers of the 4th Duke of Marlborough (1739-1817), with those of Thomas Hornsby (1733-1810)
Oxford University: History of Science Museum
NRA 9532 Oxford scientific

See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98r]
25
1840-1880: political corresp and papers of the 7th Duke of Marlborough (1822-1883)
Cambridge University Library: Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
NRA 38803

See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [98s]
26
c1682-1769: corresp and papers of the 1st Duke of Marlborough and Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, c1682-1744, with household accounts (Blenheim Palace, Marlborough House, etc) c1690-1749 and papers of the Duchess of Marlborough's executors and trustees mainly 1744-69
British Library, Manuscript Collections
See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [97d]
27
early 18th cent: executorship accounts of the 3rd Earl of Sunderland (d1722)
Yorkshire Archaeological and Historical Society
NRA 12923 Dukes Leeds

See HMC Principal family and estate collections L-W, 1999 [78a]

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