THE GLYNDE PLACE ARCHIVES
|Title:||THE GLYNDE PLACE ARCHIVES|
Pedigrees, Household Accounts and Legal Papers (MSS. 1-72) include some early domestic accounts of 1382, a useful 15th century pedigree, settlements and a will, 1305-1414, together with a group of papers giving a vivid account of the law-suit over the Waleys estate in the mid-fifteenth century for which records do not survive among the Chancery Proceedings in the Public Record Office. See Introduction p. xii above.
Personal Papers (MSS. 73-78). DisappointinGLY/few records of this class survive and practically nothing of Col. Harbert Morley (1616-1667) except two documents relating to his pardon in 1660.
Personal Accounts (MSS. 79-82) being vouchers only.
Public and Semi-Public Offices (MSS. 83-89). Mainly official documents connected with the shrievalties of Harbert Morley in 1607 and Robert Morley in 1631, but include also a scot levied by the Commissioners of Sewers for the Ouse Levels in 1537 for the cutting of a haven at Newhaven.
Settlements (MSS. 100-183), a comprehensive series from 1554.
Wills and Testamentary Papers (MSS. 184-208) include wills of all the Morley owners of Glynde from Thomas (1559) to William (1679) with documents concerning litigation on the latter's will.
EARLY TREVOR FAMILY
Pedigrees and Personal Papers (MSS. 209-216), a small group among which the dates of birth and godparents of John Trevor III's children are the most informative records.
Parliamentary Papers (MSS. 217-222). Stray documents from Sir John Trevor II's papers dealing with the Civil War and the Sequestration Committees in Wales, which did not come to Glynde.
Places of Profit. There are no records of Sir John Trevor I as Surveyor of the Navy or as Surveyor of Windsor Castle and Park (see Introduction).
The Keepership of Oatlands Park (MSS. 223-386) represents the successive keeperships of John Trevor I and his son and concerns the maintenance of the palace and park, 1603-1656, and the royal wardrobe at Oatlands, 1556-1628, including detailed inventories of the hangings, carpets, furniture and pictures, 1608-1619.
The Coal Farm (MSS. 387-543) is an important group of papers kept by Sir John Trevor I and II, successive partners in the valuable farm of the coal duties (see Introduction to this section, p.xxii).
Correspondence (MSS. 544-568) comprises 239 letters of which those of [Sir] Richard Trevor to his brother [Sir] John Trevor I, mainly 1591-1595, and those of Sir John Trevor II, his cousin Magdalen Bagenall, his sister and brother-in-law Sir Edward and Lady Fitton are of particular interest for the affairs of the family.
Financial Papers (MSS. 569-628). These vouchers and bonds do not give a complete picture of the Trevor finances. MSS. 569-578 relate to ventures in various ships, 1590-1605; MSS. 579-581 concern receipts from the Virginia Company stock; MSS. 582-589 are incomplete accounts of income from the Coal Farm.
Legal Papers (MSS. 629-652) contains some law-suits of local Welsh interest but by no means covers all the litigation in which the Trevors engaged in the late 16th and 17th centuries.
Settlements and Personal Estate Papers (MSS. 653-737). An incomplete series, most noteworthy for the documents preceding the marriage of Sir John Trevor Ii and Anne Hampden in 1619. The Fitton settlements (MSS. 694-737) should be studied with reference to the Fitton letters (see above Correspondence). They disclose the indebtedness of Sir Edward Fitton to his brother-in-law Sir John Trevor II.
Testamentary Records (MSS. 738-747). No earlier original wills than those of John Trevor III and Richard Trevor (both of 1589) survive, but the group also includes that of Edmund Hampden, 1605.
Miscellaneous (MSS. 748-759) includes a letter from Henry Earl of Arundel (1589) of parliamentary interest, papers concerning a church in Anglesey (1639), tapestry (1645-53) and the affairs of Sir Vincent Corbett's trustees.
LATER TREVOR AND BRAND FAMILIES
Pedigrees (MSS. 760-762) include a printed work showing the ownership of Glynde Place with a note on the portraits.
Personal Papers (MSS. 763-771). Apart from two midshipmen's logbooks kept by Thomas Seymour Brand and Humphrey Ranulph Brand, little falls into this class.
Parliamentary Elections (MSS. 772-793) consist of vouchers and some correspondence for the Lewes elections of 1741, 1768 and 1774 when Trevors stood as candidates.
Correspondence: Hampden family (MSS. 794-796). A group of papers whose unexpected appearance among the Glynde MSS. may be explained by the relationship of Sir John Trevor III, through his mother and his wife, to that family (see pedigree p.xxvi) and by the subsequent inheritance of the Buckinghamshire estates of the Hampdens by Robert 4th Lord Trevor in 1754. They include unsigned letters of Algernon Sidney, written during his captivity in the Tower and his trial for treason in 1683, probably to his fellow prisoner John Hampden; three interesting letters of Thomas, afterwards 1st Marquis of Wharton, to Richard Hampden on Buckinghamshire elections, 1704-1714; and a letter of Richard Hampden perhaps to the Duchess of Kendal about his speculation in the South Sea Company, 1720.
Settlements and Testamentary Records (MSS. 797-844). This is an incomplete series, but includes exemplifications of proceedings in Chancery on the wills of John Trevor IV, 1689, and John Trevor V, 1744. There are no original or probate copies of Brand wills.
Building, Maintenance and Furnishing (MSS. 845-884). Considerable alterations and repairs to the Tudor mansion were carried out when Bishop Richard Trevor was owner, 1743-1771, and it is for this period alone that any records on this subject survive. They include two designs for the new stables, some sketches and notes on building materials and work one by glaziers, painters, carpenters and bricklayers. Reference should also be made to the household vouchers and estate accounts of the period.
Household Accounts (MSS. 885-907). Detailed vouchers survive for 1753-1769 only.
Hawksden, late 13th century, are followed by leases, 1394-1727 (MSS. 1223-1234). The exception to this rule are the leases of the Glynde bourne farms by the Trevors and Brands. These farms being made up of several properties purchased at different times have been grouped on their (MSS. 1898-1919).
Waleys family properties (MSS. 1142-1346)
Glynde: Various, pre 1290-1410 (MSS. 1142-1198).
Chambers, 1472-1555 (MSS. 1199, 1200).
Heathfield: Stonhurst, pre 1264-1305 (MSS. 1201-1204).
Stoneres, 1406 (MS. 1205).
Bicstrode, 1356 (MSS. 1206, 1207).
House and garden, 1384 (MS. 1208).
Lewes: Land near Wyseke c. 1202-7 (MS. 1209).
Mayfield: Various properties, c. 1235-1340 (MSS. 1210-1219)
Carleham, 1260, 1362 (MSS. 1220, 1221).
Hawkesden, pre 1290-1727 (MSS. 1223-1234).
Baynden manor and farm 1409/10-1801 (MSS. 1235-1248).
Patching and Slinfold: Various, 1288-1398 (MSS. 1249-1252).
Ringmer: Various, 13th cent.-1406 (MSS. 1253-1256).
Millynk, 1386-1570 (MSS. 1257-1260).
Steyning: Annual rent, c. 1296 (MS. 1261).
Wadhurst: Moseham, 1370-1475 (MSS. 1262-1265).
West Firle: Various properties, 13th cent., 1367 (MSS. 1266, 1267).
Aldenham: Various properties, 1309, 1328 (MSS. 1268, 1269).
Ardeley and La More manor, 1303-1374 (MSS. 1270-1280).
Aspenden and Wakeley manors, 12th cent.-1553 (MSS. 1281-1313).
Buntingford, 1415 (MS. 1314).
Cottered, 1282, 1343 (MSS. 1315, 1316).
Elstree, 1353 (MS. 1317).
Great Munden, 1344-1427 (MSS. 1321-1325).
Hitchin, 1322-1414 (MSS. 1318-1320).
Ippallitts, Maydecroft manor, 1361 (MS. 1326).
St. Albans, 1296-1309 (MSS. 1327, 1328).
Stanstead, 1352 (MS. 1329).
Bramblehanger in Luton, 1342, 1353 (MSS. 1330, 1331).
Great Orwell, 1344-1347 (MSS. 1332-1336).
Stifford and Wennington, 1336 (MS. 1337).
Dover, 1326 (MS. 1338).
Newenden, 1302 (MS. 1339).
Thanington, 1370, 1403 (MSS. 1340, 1341).
Shop in unamed parish, 1329 (MS. 1342).
Shop in St. Andrew, Cornhill, 1338, 1370 (MSS. 1343, 1344).
Shop in All Saints, 1408 (MS. 1345).
MIDDLESEX AND BUCKINGHAMSHIRE
Colham and Denton, 1329 (MS. 1346).
Inventories (MSS. 908-916). A small group, of which a catalogue of fruit trees sent to Glynde Place, 1754, a list of ten family portraits, 1760, and an inventory of the goods of John, [3rd] Viscount Hampden are the only items of importance.
Correspondence (MSS. 917-920) being 4 letters on the pictures at Glynde.
Papers concerning the rebuilding (MSS. 922-953) carried out by Bishop Trevor 1763-5, include sketches and measurements by John Morris of Lewes, the contractor, but no designs by the architect, Sir Thomas Robinson. Reference should also be made to the household and estate accounts for the period.
(MSS. 954-1138). These are prefaced by an important group dealing with the relations of the lords of Glynde with their overlords, the Archbishops of Canterbury, and also with the tenure of Buxted manor. The late 12th century list of knights of the archbishop (MS. 954) is of outstanding importance. Other items include a rental of South Malling manor in 1305/6, a custumal of that manor, papers concerning disputes with the overlord of Glynde in 1465 and 1669-70, and between the lords of Glynde and Buxted in 1613. The records of only seven of the Sussex manors which formed part of the estate have survived among the archives. Of these Glynde and Baynden were Waleys manors, Beddingham, Combe and Preston Beckhelwyn were bought by the Morleys while Horsted Keynes and Bivelham were added by the Trevors and Brands respectively. No records survive in the archives for the Waleys manor of Patching or the sub-manor of Hawkesden in Mayfield, or of Thanington in Kent. The manor of Beddingham has the best run of court rolls, 1331-1901, with some gaps, together with nine compotus rolls, 1307-1391. For Glynde a broken series of court rolls, 1336-1901, survive but with detailed rentals of which the earliest are c. 1290, 1298-9 and 1353. Also in this class are a few records of the manors of Moor Hall in Ardeley, Dynesle Temple and Farnyvale in Preston, and the manor of Bussheton in Pirton, Hertfordshire, all believed to be Waleys manors. Some stray West Country manorial records, having no known connection with these archives, have been placed in the Miscellanea (MSS.3471, 3472).
TITLE DEEDS AND LEASES
The Waleys Cartulary (MSS. 1139-1141). For a detailed introduction to this private register of Waleys title deeds referring to Hertfordshire, Hampshire and Sussex, 13th century-1419, see the catalogue. MSS. 1140 and 1141 are paper rolls of copies of medieval deeds, c. 1290-1344.
The individual deeds have been arranged under the families which acquired them and this follows the existing arrangement on deposit. It also allows the student to see the growth of the estate around the medieval nucleus. Within each group the deeds are arranged alphabetically by parish and within the parish group the various properties are placed in chronological order of the earliest title deed, which does not necessarily follow the order of acquisition by the lords of Glynde. Following immediately each group of title deeds have been placed later leases giving a full account of each property in the estate. Thus the title deeds of
Morley family properties (MSS. 1347-1691)
Arundel, 1651 (MS. 1347).
Beddingham: manors of Combe and Beddingham, 1563-1612 (MSS. 1348-1357).
Leases of farms in same, 1625-1867 (MSS. 1358-1365).
Copy admissions: manor of Beddingham, 1570-1648 (MSS. 1366-1370).
Copy admissions: manor of Combe, 1621-1634 (MSS. 1371-1373).
Manor of Preston Beckhelwyn, 1451-1655 (MSS. 1374-1401).
Leases of the manor, 1548-1627 (MSS. 1402-1437).
Leases of part of the manor, 1550-1586 (MSS. 1438-1440).
Leases of farms, 1712-1872 (MSS. 1441-1445).
Messuage in Sound, 1608 (MSS. 1446, 1447).
Glynde: Bosts alias Bosses, 1362-1484 (MSS. 461-1466).
Bosts alias Bosses manor, 1577-1586 (MSS. 1467-1482).
Brigdens, 1317-1547 (MSS. 1483-1498).
House and land, 1334, 1424 (MSS. 1499, 1500).
Bynethebadnore, 1346-1454 (MSS. 1501-1503).
Preston lands, 1440 (MS. 1504)
Johnsons, 1536-1600 (MSS. 1505-1508)
Hencock lands, 1556-1612 (MSS. 1509-1516).
Batnore, 1623 (MS. 1517).
Leases, 1604, 1609 (MSS. 1518, 1519).
Testimonial re Sheepdown, 1552 (MS. 1520).
Agreement for decoy pond, 1666 (MSS. 1521, 1522).
Hellingly: Bowlys and Leyland, 1557-1652 (MSS. 1523-1544).
Leases, 1671-1725 (MSS. 1545-1551).
Kingston Bowsey: Various, 1652-1671 (MSS. 1552-1566).
Bond for lease, 1709 (MS. 1567).
Mayfield: Barnes, 1399-1515 (MSS. 1568-1587).
Leases, 1618-1727 (MSS. 1588-1592).
Winters, late 13th cent.-1490 (MSS. 1593-1619).
Dosyes, 1440 (MS. 1620).
Croft between Chilhope and Carleham, 1478 (MSS. 1621, 1622).
Gilhope alias Chilhope, 1539-1668 (MSS. 1623-1629).
Tithes, 1614 (MSS. 1630-1633).
Kenwards lands, 1641-1659? (MSS. 1635-1637).
Seaford: Various properties, 1317-1487 (MSS. 1638-1661).
South Malling, 1598 (MS. 1662).
Waldron, 1524 (MS. 1663).
Acton, co. Middsx., 1491 (MS. 1664)
Wiggenhall St. Mary, co. Norfolk, 1562 (MS. 1665).
Various properties of the Eversfield family, (Sir Thomas Eversfield of Denne in Horsham married Anne d. of William Morley. For the relationship of Sir Thomas to the Nicholas of these deeds see Comber, Sussex Genealogies: Horsham Centre, pp. 91, 93.) 1531-1626 (MSS. 1666-1678).
Unclassified deeds, 1580-1647 (MSS. 1679-1683).
Miscellaneous bonds, 1562-1666 (MSS. 1684-1691).
Trevor and Brand family acquisitions (MSS. 1692-2594)
Alciston: admission to Hampden lands, 1824 (MS. 1692).
Leases, 1792, 1816 (MSS. 1693, 1694).
Beddingham: Longborough and Smithall, 1506-1759 (MSS. 1695-1756).
Lease of moiety, 1675 (MS. 1757).
Lands in Beddingham and Buxted, 1691 (MS. 1758).
Shorts, 1705-1780 (MSS. 1759-1766).
Durham Stock Marshes, 1748-1865 (MSS. 1767-1779).
Stoneberg and Deanland, 1766 (MSS. 1780-1782).
Surrender of copyholds, 1766-1778 (MSS. 1783-1790).
Declaration by Mr. Carr, 1816 (MS. 1791).
Leases of windmill, 1808, 1839 (MSS. 1792, 1793).
'Trevor Arms' in Pickfield, 1845-1906 (MSS. 1794-1797).
Denton: see South Heighton.
Glynde: Messuage and 2a, 1682 (MSS. 1798-1801).
Freemantles Cottage, 1719-1770 (MSS. 1802-1809).
'Trevor Arms' in Glynde, 1721-1804 (MSS. 1810-1844).
Orchard and oasthouse, 1721-1815 (MSS. 1845-1860).
Barn and 18a, 1727-1774 (MSS. 1861-1873).
Cobs croft, 1757 (MSS. 1874, 1875).
Exchange with Thomas Hay, 1764 (MS. 1876).
Wisdoms copyhold, 1766, 1802 (MSS. 1877, 1878).
Messuage garden and blacksmith's shop, 1769-1788 (MSS. 1879-1883).
Messuage late Tugwells, 1825, 1835 (MSS. 1884-1886).
Ragged lands, 1832-1847 (MSS. 1887-1893).
Timber yard, 1840-1856 (MSS. 1894-1897).
Leases of Glynde estate, 1689-1899 (MSS. 1898-1919).
Heathfield: Pigstrood Farm, 1734-1840 (MSS. 1920-1944).
Bigknowle Farm, 1740-1867 (MSS. 1945-1984).
Froghole Farm, 1743-1866 (MSS. 1985-2010).
Bignowle and Froghole, 1827-1867 (MSS. 2011-2019).
Stonehurst Farm, 1752-1895 (MSS. 2020-2043).
Horsted Keynes and West Hoathly: Manor of Horsted Keynes Broadhurst and various farms, 1336-1847 (MSS. 2044-2175).
Leases, 1763-1832 (MSS. 2176-2182).
Lewes: 3 houses in All Saints, 1677-1799 (MSS. 2183-2196).
Spittle Farm, 1755-1800 (MSS. 2197-2202).
Messuage in St. Michael's, 1731 (MS. 2203).
Mayfield: Fiar Oak Farm, 1637-1839 (MSS. 2204-2241).
Leases, 1836 (MSS. 2242, 2243).
Abstract of title to Bivelham manor, 1771 (MS. 2244).
Lease of Bivelham lands, 1792 (MS. 2245).
3 cottages near Barnes, 1814-1867 (MSS. 2246-2253).
Surrenders to lord of Bivelham, 1843-1871 (MSS. 2254-2258).
Ringmer: Copyholds, 1591-1837 (MSS. 2259-2275).
Leases of Broyle Farm, 1774-1836 (MSS. 2276-2279).
Cottage in Munkin Gate, 1856-1862 (MSS. 2280-2284).
Ripe: Copyhold land held of Laughton, 1785, 1824 (MSS. 2285, 2286).
Leases of farms, 1769, 1812 (MSS. 2287, 2288).
Selmeston: Various properties, 1688-1772 (MSS. 2289-2313).
South Heighton and Denton: Chambers Farm, 1627-1824 (MSS. 2314-2333).
Chambers copyhold (Bishopstone manor) 1693-1824 (MSS. 2334-2341).
Leases, 1737-1798 (MSS. 2342-2344).
Everard's Farm, 1740-1850 (MSS. 2345-2376).
Nores, 1849-1877 (MSS. 2377-2381).
Steyning: Various properties, 1583-1761 (MSS. 2383-2396).
Bridger settlements, 1732-1761 (MSS. 2397-2403).
Huddleston Farm, 1593-1763 (MSS. 2404-2431).
Leases, 1757-1825 (MSS. 2432-2434).
Wickham Farms, 1650-1762 (MSS. 2435-2489).
Leases and agreements, 1753-1870 (MSS. 2490-2497).
Copyhold cottage, 1730-1785 (MSS. 2498-2507).
Fee farm rents, 1772 (MSS. 2508-2513).
Wickham Mead, 1730-1765 (MSS. 2514-2516).
Various properties 1735-1810 (MSS. 2517-2519).
Tarring Neville: Copyhold, late Bullens, 1599-1819 (MSS. 2520-2529).
Lands late Picknells, 1657-1827 (MSS. 2530-2552).
Upper Farm and Stockferry House, 1814-1819 (MSS. 2553-2562).
Above properties united, 1859-1875 (MSS. 2563-2572).
House and crofts, late Rangers, 1711-1862 (MSS. 2573-2594).
Durham, 1753-1755 (MSS. 2595-2597).
London, 1648-1663 (MSS. 2598-2603).
Cheshire, 1369-1655 (MSS. 2604-2607).
TREVOR WELSH ESTATES (MSS. 2608-2719).
Various evidences (MSS. 2720-2729A), a small group of documents mainly relating to legal disputes which include the petition of Thomas Morley against Sir John Gage concerning the manor of Glynde, c. 1532-44 and another petition of the same for the recovery of the muniments of Glynde in the hands of John Sakvyle, c. 1550.
ESTATE PAPERS: SUSSEX
Purchases and Sales (MSS. 2730-2748) being correspondence, surveys, valuations and sales particulars, 1723-1822.
Correspondence (MSS. 2749-2783) includes bundles of letters addressed to William Hodgson, the steward, 1760-1768, which relate among other things to the building of Glynde church.
Rentals (MSS. 2784-2799). These follow on from manorial rentals above. The series runs from 1702-1736 with other isolated items. Rentals will also be found among the accounts (MSS. 2950, 2951) and annual statements (MSS. 2800-2810) below.
Accounts (MSS. 2800-3031) include (a) Annual statements, 1710-1718, 1735-1752, 1771-1828, 1831-1833, 1853-1891. (b) Account Books. No books survive earlier than 1668 and the accounts are complete only for 1741-1768, 1793-1901. (c) Estate vouchers, for which complete series exist for 1736-1741, 1754-1779 and 1792-1829.
Farm Accounts (MSS. 3032-3034)
Labour Accounts (MS. 3035)
Draft Tenancy Agreements (MSS. 3036-3082)
Terriers, Valuations and Surveys (MSS. 3083-3106), mainly 18th century, covering most of the farms on the estate.
Maps and Plans (MSS. 3107-3162) include some fine 18th-century maps of Glynde, Beddingham and Mayfield. Some of these remain on exhibition at Glynde Place; of these photographs are available in the East Sussex Record Office.
Enclosure (MSS. 3163-3199) comprises mainly papers relating to the Broyle Park, Ringmer, including a copy of the Act of 1663, and agreement, award, etc., 1766-1772. This section also includes a copy of the enclosure award for Horsted Keynes Broadhurst, 1865.
Turnpike Act (MS. 3200)
Timber Records (MSS. 3201-3206)
Stewards' Papers (MSS. 3207-3213)
Miscellaneous Papers (MSS. 3214-3224)
ESTATE PAPERS: BEDFORDSHIRE
A Stray document referring to timber sales by the Trevors (MS. 3225).
ESTATE PAPERS: BUCKINGHAMSHIRE
Papers concerning Wendover rectory, part of the Hampden estate, 1293-1640, and sales of Hampden estates, 1825-6, are among this group (MSS. 3226-3234).
ESTATE PAPERS: WALES
Iventories (MSS. 3236, 3237) the former of Plas Teg, co. Flint, 1663.
Rentals (MSS. 3237-3270) of the Trevor estates, 1545-1674, among which those for John Trevor III, 1563-1575, are especially detailed. The series includes one of the Fitton estate at Gawsworth, co. Cheshire, c. 1632-8. Correspondence (MSS. 3271-3278). An extensive group of letters from the stewards of the Welsh estates to the Trevors in London. These include original bundles for Thomas Crewe, 1630-1638/9, Samuel Woodde, 1637/8-1648, John Peck, 1649-1654/5, Jasper Peck, 1665-1673 and Roger Kenrick, 1667-1674.
Accounts and vouchers (MSS. 3279-3314). This series does not comprise the main accounts of the Trevors but includes two accounts of Trevor coal mines, 1630 and 1631.
Surveys and valuations (MSS. 3315-3334) containing particularly full surveys of the demesnes of Plas Teg and Trevalyn, late 16th and 17th centuries.
Lordship of Bromfield and Yale (MSS. 3335-3351) being mainly papers concerning the leasing of this estate from the Crown.
Miscellaneous Papers (MSS. 3352-3369)
ECCLESIASTICAL AND PARISH RECORDS
Rectories of Glynde and Beddingham (MSS. 3370-3425). An important group containing an as yet unpublished actum of Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, dated 1222, two other 13th-century documents of Glynde vicarage and leases of the rectories, 17th-19th centuries.
Glynde Parish Records (MSS. 3426-3460) including a description of the of Glynde, 1575-6, and papers on the construction of Glynde New Bridge, 1768-1775.
Charities (MSS. 3461-3465). Payments to the poor, 1708-1716 and 1741-1757, and Hay's Charity papers, 1838-1871.
Schools (MSS. 3466, 3467). A group concerning Horsted Keynes Charity School, 1708-1741, and a plan of Glynde School, 1899.
MSS. 3468-3480) comprising documents whose provenance and to the Glynde MSS. has not been discovered. They include a number of household and stable accounts of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, which were used as backing for the Waleys Cartulary MS. 1139); a copy of the Statute roll of 1402-3; two account rolls for the Queen's manors in Somerset, 1542-4, and accounts for St. Mary's Hospital, Chichester, 1582/3.
('Parochial History of Glynde,' Sussex Archaeoligical Collections, vol. 20, pp. 47-90 (1868). An account of Glynde Place by Arthur Oswald appeared in Country Life 14, 21 and 28 April, 1955, and an illustrated guide is available at the house.)
(A complimentary group of Trevor family settlements and other documents of the earlier period are to be found among the Trevor-Roper MSS. at the Flintshire County Record Office.)
(Glynde MS. 954.)
(There were Waleys in Hampshire, Suffolk and Northumberland in the twelfth century; the Suffolk Waleys later bore the same arms as the Waleys of Glynde; gules, a fesse ermine.)
(J.H. Round (ed.)., Calendar of Documents preserved in France 918-1206 (London, 1899), p. 505; Pipe Roll Society, vol. 7, p. 40; 'The Chartulary of the Priory of St. Pancras of Lewes', vol. I, Sussex Record Society, vol. XXXVIII, pp. 116, 161.)
(Pipe Roll Society, vol. 28, p. 37.)
(Berry, County Genealogies... Sussex, p. 173, and framed pedigree at Glynde Place.)
(V.C.H. Sussex, vol 1, p. 388.)
(Domesday Monachorum, ed. D.C.Douglas, pp. 50-1, 105; Gordon Ward, 'Godfrey of Malling', Sussex Notes and Queries, V, pp. 3-5.)
(Sussex Feet of Fines, Vol. I, no. GLY/130, Sussex Record Society, Vol. II.)
(W. Farrer, Honors and Knights' Fees, Vol III, p. 29.)
(Red Book of the Exchequer, ed. H. Hall, Vol. II, p. 556; Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1272-1281, p. 204.)
(P.R.O. Ancient Deeds, A. 4210.)
(Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1272-1281, p. 204; Cal. Fine Rolls, 1272-1307, p. 74; Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. 64, pp. 144-147; 'Customals of the Sussex Manors of the Archbishop of Canterbury', Sussex Record Society, Vol. 57, pp. xxx, xxxi. For details of the tenure of Glynde and right of chase see Glynde MSS. 954, 961.)
(Book of Fees, Vol. I, p. 417.)
(Assize Roll 913, m. 14; Sussex Feet of Fines, Vol. II, no. GLY/775, Sussex Record Society, Vol. VII.)
(Registrum Epistolarum Johannis Peckham Archiepiscopi Cantuariensis, Rolls Series vol. III, p. 997.)
(Ibid, vol. I, p. 235.)
(Cal. Fine Rolls, 1272-1307, p. 342.)
('The Knights of Edward I', Harleian Society, vol. 84, p. 139.)
(Glynde MS. 24.)
(Harleian Society, vol. 84, p. 139.)
(Glynde MSS., 24-25.)
(Glynde MS. 1.)
(Glynde MS. 8.)
(Glynde MSS. 8, 16.)
(Glynde MSS. 9-11.)
(Glynde MS. 51)
(V.C.H. Herts., vol. III, pp. 21-2, 82; vol. IV, p. 197.)
(V.C.H. Herts., vol. IV, p. 81.)
(Glynde MSS. 16, 17.)
(No records of the case exist in the P.R.O. but the proceedings are in Latin, the normal form for the Common Law side of Chancery.)
(Glynde MS. 3.)
(Glynde MS. 24.)
(Ibid. This book then said to be in the keeping of the Prior of Christchurch, Canterbury, cannot be identified.)
(J.H. Round, 'The Lords Poynings and St. John', Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. 62, p. 18.)
(Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. 30, p. 68; vol. 31, pp. 95-6.)
(Glynde MS. 19.)
(Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. 31, pp. 100, 102, 106, 108.)
('John of Gaunt's Register', Camden Society, New Series, vol. XX, p. 97; Glynde MS. 1306.)
(Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. 15, p. 130.)
(Glynde MS. 8.)
(Glynde MS. 5.)
(Glynde MS. 4. The feoffees held by the deed of 23 January 1375/6, see Glynde MS. 19 (i).)
(According to MS. 19.)
(Account given in MS. 23.)
(Cal. P.R. Henry VI, 1441-6, p. 454.)
(Cal. P.R. Henry VI, 1446-1452, p. 491.)
(Early Chancery Proceedings, C./1/28/431.)
(Glynde MS. 27. See No. 3140, Sussex Feet of Fines, vol. III, (Sussex Record Society, vol. 23) for the fine levied on the manors of Hawkesden, Baynden and Patching by the co-heirs.)
(Early Chancery Proceedings, C.1/27/58, 59; C.1/28/56, 57, 431.)
(Glynde MSS. 54-58.)
(Wedgwood, History of Parliament, pp. 612-13.)
(Glynde MSS. 962-5.)
(Glynde MS. 23.)
(Wedgwood, History of Parliament, p. 613.)
(It is suggestive of the difference in social standing between the Waleys and the Morleys that Herbert Morley was the first of his family to sit for the county seat in 1659.)
(Berry, County Genealogies...Sussex, (1830), p. 175; 'The Visitations of the County of Sussex, 1530 and 1633-4', Harleian Society, 1905, p. 47; Comber, Sussex Genealogies, Lewes Centre, p. 190; will of Robert Morley P.C.C. 23 Holder.)
(The chantry was dissolved in 1547, Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. 20, p. 76.)
(Comber, op. cit. p. 190.)
(Glynde MS. 2729.)
(Mentioned in a settlement of 1554 molendina mea ferrarea Glynde MS. 102; Ernest Straker, Wealden Iron, p. 116.)
(For Anthony's career in Sussex and South Wales see Sussex Notes and Queries, vol. 7, p. 100, and Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. 18, pp. 13, 14.)
(V.C.H., Herts., vol. III, p. 197; vol. IV, p. 82.)
(Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. I, p. 36; vol. II, p. 59.)
(For the descent of Glyndebourne to the present owner see Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. 20, pp. 65-6, and Burke, Landed Gentry under Christie.)
(Glynde MS. 186.)
(Glynde MSS. 135-151, 166-168.)
(M. F. Keeler, The Long Parliament, 1640-1641. A Biographical Study of its Members, (1954), p. 280.)
(C. Thomas-Stanford, Sussex in the Great Civil War, 1642-1660, p. 40. Other accounts of his career are to be found in W. H. Blaauw, 'Passages of the Civil War in Sussex', Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. 5, pp. 29-104 and the D.N.B. article, which is largely based on it.)
(Letter of Mary Penington to Springet Penn, printed in C. Thomas-Stanford, op. cit., p. 113.)
(Blaauw, art. cit. pp. 95-6.)
(Thurloe, State Papers, (1742), Vol. V, p. 341.)
(Ibid. vol. IV, p. 161.)
(Blaauw, art. cit. p. 97 quoting Carte's Collection, ii, 246.)
(E. S. de Beer, 'Evelyn and Colonel Herbert Morley in 1659 and 1660', Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. 78, p. 180.)
(Diary, May 24, 1660.)
(E. S. de Beer, art. cit. p. 143.)
(W. H. Challen, 'Sussex Entries in London Parish Registers', Sussex Notes and Queries, vol. III, p. 10.)
(W. H. Challen, 'Who was Lady Cutts?' Sussex Notes and Queries, vol. XIV, p. 246; Glynde MSS. 179-182.)
(Glynde MSS. 197, 208.)
(Glynde MS. 208.)
(W. H. Challen, art. cit. p. 246; E. S. Jones, Trevors of Trevalyn (1955), p. 77.)
(Enid Sophia Jones, Trevors of Trevalyn (1955).)
(Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. J. S. Brewer, J. Gairdner and R. H. Brodie (Rolls Series) vol. 4, pt. 3, p. 2376; vol. 14, pt. I, pp. 418, 536.)
(John Trevor III married Mary Bridges, granddaughter of Sir John Bridges, whose daughter Winifred had married Sir Richard Sackville. Trevors of Trevalyn, p. 22.)
(Glynde MS. 738.)
(Cal. P.R., Eliz., vol. 1, p. 26.)
(Probably Henry Bowyer who was lessee of several Sackville iron mills, see E. Straker, 'Wealden Ironworks in 1574', Sussex Notes and Queries, vol. VII, pp. 100-1.)
(Trevors of Trevalyn, cap. I, for the history of the house; Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments: Denbighshire, under Allington.)
(Born 4 Feb. 1558/9 at Sackville Place, his godparents were Gregory Fiennes, Lord Dacre of the South, Sir Richard Sackville and Lady Buckhurst. Glynde MSS. 213, 214. See Trevors of Trevalyn, cap. III.)
(Letters to John Trevor, Glynde MS. 551.)
(A. H. Dodd, Studies in Stuart Wales, p. 80.)
(A. H. Dodd, 'North Wales in the Essex Revolt of 1601', English Historical Review, vol. 59; Neale, op. cit., pp. 113-4, 119-128.)
(This was settled by 'the greate convayance' referred to in MS. 690A. This document, dated 2 March 1606/7, has recently come to light in the Flintshire County Record Office.)
(For an account of their careers see Trevors of Trevalyn, caps. V and VI and D.N.B.)
(Trevor was one of those who bribed him, Trevors of Trevalyn, p. 46.)
(English Historical Review, vol. 59, p. 360.)
(Trevors of Trevalyn, p. 41.)
(Edmund Hampden died 1605/6, cf. Glynde MSS. 740-1 for his will and inventory. His daughters were nieces of Lady Elizabeth Winwood, wife of Sir Ralph Winwood.)
(6 Feb. 1619, Letters of John Chamberlain, ed. McClure, (1939), vol. 2, p. 210; Glynde MSS. 661-669.)
(Glynde MS. 670.)
(Trevor Correspondence, Glynde MSS. 554-558 and Fitton Papers, Glynde MSS. 694-737.)
(Keeler, op. cit.)
(A. H. Dodd, Studies in Stuart Wales, p. 126; A. N. Palmer, History of the Older Noncomformity of Wrexham, p. 9.)
(Keeler, op. cit. Brunton and Pennington, The Members of the Long Parliament, p. 67; P.R.O. S.P. Dom. 16, 427/38/vi; 16, 447/36, 37.)
(For details see Firth and Rait, Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum and D.N.B.)
(Brunton and Pennington, op. cit., p. 67.)
(Cal. S.P. Dom, 1603-10, pp. 13, 22, 52. For Sir John Trevor's papers relating to Oatland see Glynde MSS. 217-386.)
(P.R.O. State Papers Domestic, S.P. 14, 40, fol. 9.)
(Ibid. fol. 22; 'Autobiography of Phineas Pett,' Navy Records Society (1917), pp. lviii-lix; Glynde MSS. 577-578. It may have been on the 1605 embassy to Spain that Sir John received the 'Spanish chaine sett with Dyamonds' from King Philip III although he states in his will that it was 'given to me by Philipp the second'; this statement if true, would make him a secret pensioner of Spain like his Howard masters. Will of Sir John Trevor I, proved 27 April 1630, P.C.C. 35 Scroope.)
(See Glynde MSS. 387-543 for papers relating to the 'Sea-coal Farm'.)
(Glynde MS. 503.)
(Glynde MS. 582.)
(Glynde MSS. 554, 555, 560-564.)
(The D.N.B. has amalgamated the careers of Sir John Trevor I and II. For an amended version see Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, vol. 18, p. 136.)
(Firth, Last Years of the Protectorate, vol. I, p. 111.)
(Trevors of Trevalyn, cap. VIII.)
(Appointed solicitor-general, 1692; attorney-general, 1695; chief justice of the common pleas, 1701; lord privy seal, 1726-30; lord president of the council, 1730. See D.N.B.)
(His sister Arabella Trevor, married as her second husband Colonel Edward Montagu, brother of George Earl of Halifax.)
(Letters of Horace Walpole, ed. Mrs. Paget Toynbee (1903) vol. I, p. 197.)
(H.M.C. 52 Frankland-Russell-Astley MSS. p. 273.)
(H.M.C. 52 Frankland-Russell-Astley MSS., pp. 241, 250.)
(Ibid. p. 272.)
(Ibid. p. 292.)
(Glynde MS. 827. For the descent of the Welsh estates see Trevors of Trevalyn, passim.)
(Glynde MS. 828.)
(The details of his life are drawn from the D.N.B: and 'A sketch of the Life and Character of the Right Honourable and Reverend Richard Trevor Lord Bishop of Durham by the late George Allan, Esq., F.S.A.' Nicholl, Literary Anecdotes, vol. IX.)
(Letters of Horace Walpole ed. Mrs. Paget Toynbee (1903), vol. IV, p. 130.)
(Letters of Robert Trevor from the Hague form the Trevor MSS. in the archives of the Earl of Buckinghamshire, H.M.C. 14th Report, Appendix Part 9.)
(G.E.C[okayne], Complete Peerage (1910).)
(Glynde MSS. 775-793.)
(This relationship is shown in the pedigrees.)
(See under Teynham in Burke's Peerage, 96th ed. (1938), p. 2403.)
(None of his successors at Glynde followed his example for all retained the surname Brand.)
(The account of Henry Brand is based on the D.N.B. article.)
|Date:||1222 - 1977|
|Held by:||East Sussex Record Office, not available at The National Archives|
Early Trevor Family (pre 1679)
Trevor and Brand Families
Accounts, plans, inventories and correspondence
Papers concerning rebuilding
Relations with the Chief Lord
TITLE DEEDS AND LEASES
Waleys family properties
Morley family properties
Trevor and Brand family properties
Trevor Welsh estate
ESTATE PAPERS: SUSSEX
Purchases and sales
Terriers, Valuations and Surveys
Maps and Plans
ESTATE PAPERS: BEDFORDSHIRE
ESTATE PAPERS: BUCKINGHAMSHIRE
ESTATE PAPERS: WALES
ECCLESIASTICAL AND PARISH RECORDS
Rectories of Glynde and Beddingham
Glynde Parish Records
Pedigree of Anglo-Saxon kings
John of Gaunt's Household rolls
Other Miscellaneous Records
MAPS AND PLANS
Glynde Place lies 2½ miles east of Lewes but is separated from it by the bulk of Mount Caburn. It stands at the head of the village street which runs south to Glynde Reach, a tributary of the River Ouse. No full scale parish history of Glynde has yet appeared, though there is an extensive article on the subject by the Rev. W. de St. Croix. '
From the 12th century to the present day four related families, the Waleys, Morleys, Trevors and Brands, have lived at Glynde and contributed to the archives listed in this volume. The classification of these archives has attempted to preserve as far as possible the original groups of personal papers, settlements and wills under four headings: Waleys, Morley, Early Trevor, Later Trevor and Brand. The Trevor division is to distinguish the documents of the family brought with them from Wales when they inherited the estate in 1679 from those accumulated in Sussex. The title deeds have been divided to show the build up of the estate by these families and under each family these are arranged topographically. The Welsh deeds of the Trevors form a separate section here. A more detailed grouping of these records will be found in the table of contents, while the more important items in each group are noted in the summary of the classes on p. 1 below. A brief account of each family with a pedigree follows, while introductions to the more important groups of records such as the Waleys Cartulary and the Sea Coal Farm papers will be found preceding their notice in the catalogue. Finally a note of related archives elsewhere appears on p. 8.
THE WALEYS FAMILY
The first-known lord of Glynde was Richard Waleys I, who was holding four knights fees of the Archbishop of Canterbury at Glynde and Buxted in Sussex, Thanington and Lossenham in Kent according to a late twelfth century list of knights of the archbishop. Waleys (Walensis) was a common name meaning 'of Wales' or simply 'foreign' and it will be appreciated that in the century after the Norman Conquest it would be hazardous to attempt a pedigree on surname evidence alone. Richard's father may have been the Robert Waleys who witnessed a notification to the barons of Kent in 1161-8, paid 40s. with Ralph, the clerk, for the lands of his brother William to the Sheriff of Kent in 1163-4, and owned land in Little Horsted in c. 1170. The first mention of Richard Waleys I is on the Sussex portion of the Pipe Roll, 1178-9, for the payment of 10 marks for his right to I fee in Torinton (? Taninton, i.e., Thanington, Kent). Richard married a certain Denise, who is called 'the heiress of the Lord Glynde' in the old family pedigree. This old tradition that Glynde was inherited through an heiress may be based on fact in spite of the unreliability of the pedigrees, which all postdate Richard and Denise to the end of the thirteenth century.
There are good reasons for supposing that the lords of Glynde before the Waleys were descended from one Godfrey of Malling, of whom Domesday Book records that he had previously held the manor of South Malling to farm for 90 pounds and was still holding a hide worth 50 shillings of the archbishop in the same manor (this may have been in Glynde which was in the Archbishop's peculiar of South Malling and is not mentioned elsewhere in Domesday Book). The Domesday Monachorum of Christchurch, Canterbury, notes that Godfrey of Malling held 3 fees of the archbishop. Professor Douglas has doubted whether Godfrey of Malling was identical with a Godfrey the dapifer holding land at Thanington, just outside Canterbury, but in view of the possession of the manor of Thanington and property in the peculiar of South Malling by the Waleys it may well be that the two Godfreys were one person, the ancestor of the heiress Denise. The popularity of Godfrey as a Christian name for Waleys men favours this argument.
Denise remarried Ralph Ardern and in 1209/10 they conveyed by fine the manors of Glynde, [West] Tarring and Patching in Sussex, Thanington and Newenden in Kent, which Denise held by grant of Archbishop Hubert Walter (d. 1205) possibly as her dower, to Denise's son Godfrey Waleys I, in exchange for a life interest in Patching for Ralph. Sir Godfrey Waleys I was credited with service of 1¼ knights' fees for West Tarring, one of the archbishop's Sussex manors, in 1210-12; by 1233 he was farming the manor for an annual render of 181i. in money or in food dues when the archbishop stayed at his mansion of West Tarring. About this time he appears as witness to several St. Pancras Priory deeds and in one is called 'the steward of the hall of Lewes.' Archbishop Edmund Rich deprived Godfrey of the manor for making default in rent but restored it in 1237 on payment over four years of £80, which the Archbishop graciously deposited with the Prior of Lewes to provide marriage portions for Godfrey's four daughters. His grandson Richard Waleys II was forced to relinquish the manor in 1276 for wronging the tenants and spending only 61i. 17s. 5¾d. on food for dues on one of Archbishop Robert Kilwardby's visits. The suit made a great stir in the county and 'all the knights and free tenants of Sussex were challenged on one side or the other.' Richard was obliged to quitclaim his right of chase in the archbishop's manors of South Malling and Mayfield.
In 1235 Sir Godfrey Waleys I was nominated a collector of the lay aid granted on the marriage of Isabella, the daughter of Henry III, with the Emperor Frederick II. When the money was rendered at the Exchequer in 1237 Godfrey was dead and his son Godfrey was represented by H[ugh] de Albeigny who held him in ward. Sir Godfrey Waleys II married Joan, the daughter of Robert le Sauvage. In a case recorded on the Assize Roll for 52 Henry III (1267-8) it was stated that Godfrey had died about a year before, leaving a son Richard and a daughter Agnes de Baddebyr. His widow Joan had then come to Shipley in Sussex and given Agnes seisin, but the same evening Richard, son of Godfrey, came and turned her out so the seisin was not effective. In 1271 Joan Waleys levied a fine with Agnes de Baddebyr of the manor of Goringlee in Sussex. Sir Richard II compensated for his loss of West Tarring by buying lands at Carleham, Hawkesden and Baynden in Mayfield and he did homage to the archbishop for lands in Mayfield in 1279. His estates now included woodland at Mayfield, down at Patching, and down, arable, and brookland at Glynde. In Kent, Thanington lay near the west gate of Canterbury while at Newenden and Lossenham, a small port in the lower Rother valley, Sir Richard commanded the road from London to Rye, and the heavy tolls he exacted at Newenden bridge were much resented by the men of Rye, who in revenge distrained on his tenants in 1281. Sir Richard married Joan, daughter of Thomas Gates of Newenden, and had two sons Richard and Godfrey. His widow had remarried Robert de Sevaunz (or Septvans) by 1294 without royal licence.
Sir Richard Waleys III was enrolled for the defence of the realm in 1296, and in 1297, 1298 and 1301 he was summoned to fight in Edward l's Scots War. Meanwhile his brother Godfrey was living at Thanington and taking the profits there and at Lossenham to his own use. On his brother's death without issue Sir Godfrey inherited and on 13 October 1303 rendered homage to the archbishop for 3 knights fees at Glynde, Buxted, Thanington and Lossenham. He too fought against the Scots in the Bannockburn campaign in 1314 and in 1324 he was summoned to the Great Council in Westminster. The facts of Sir Godfrey's two marriages were bitterly disputed by his descendants in a fifteenth century law suit and it is still impossible to verify this part of the Waleys pedigree. The supporters of William Waleys III believed that Sir Godfrey's sons John, William, Thomas and Godfrey were children of his first marriage with the daughter of Sir Herre [Henry] Tregoz, and that Sir Godfrey remarried in 1305 Joan, the daughter of Sir John Bassingbourn, by whom he had no children. The four co-heiresses and their husbands on the other hand claimed descent from Joan Bassingbourn in order to inherit under the entail of 1305 It was alleged by the first party that Sir John Waleys must have been the son of Godfrey's first marriage and born before 1305 as he was a hundred years old when he died in 1375 'as yt ys welknowen to gret partie of the schyre of Sussex.' This reckoning was based Waleys III, son of William Waleys II, brother of John Waleys II. This William is called the Idiot in the family pedigree.
Robert, [5th] Baron Poynings appears to have had the wardship of William the idiot (wronGLY/called John in MS. 8) and to have occupied the manor of Glynde by agreement with Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury. As a natural idiot one would have expected William to have been in the king's wardship. The four daughters and their husbands disputed the tile of William Waleys III and the dispute was put to the arbitration of William Chaunterell, serjeant-at-law, and Alexander Anne, recorder of the City of London. In their award of 22 Nov. 1436 the arbiters found for the four daughters, and Lord Poynings was ordered to surrender the manor; William Waleys was disseised on 12 Dec. 1436.
The coheirs then partitioned the Waleys estates. Beatrice and her second husband William Milreth, took the manors of Hawkesden and Baynden, half the mill of Mellynk and part of the manor of Glynde. The Manor of Patching, half the mill of Mellynk, and an annuity of 26s. 8d. were allotted to Agnes and John Burgh. The manor of Glynde was to be held jointly by Robert Lee and his wife Joan and Nicholas Morley and his wife Joan, a decision that was to cause much contention, and was taken to arbitration in 1440. There is no information in the archives about the partition of the other Waleys estates and no more is heard of the Kent manors of Lossenham and Thanington and the 'vill' of Newenden. The lands in Shalden, co. Hants., brought by Margaret, the de Boys heiress, to the de Kendales and ultimately to the Waleys, seem to have gone to the Lee family for their deeds show they resided there. Nicholas Morley, a prominent Hertfordshire gentleman, obtained most of the Hertfordshire lands including the manors of Wakely, Tanneys, Aspenden and Moor Hall in Ardeley. The manor of Beauchamps alias Alfladewick, co. Herts., was in the possession of Agnes with her first husband, John Burgh, in 1434, and with her second husband, John Padyngton, in 1452.
In 1445/6 the claim of William Waleys III to the inheritance was again asserted and an Inquisition was held on the 14 March 1445/6 by the king's escheator which found that William Waleys III was the next male heir and that he had been an idiot from birth and still was an idiot. MS. GLY/23 relates that on 14 April the coparceners instituted proceedings in Chancery for the recovery of the lands. MS. GLY/14 though dated 4 Nov. 1450, was originally dated 14 April 1446 and records the case probably heard on the Common Law side of Chancery between the coparceners and John Vampage for the king.
The coparceners claimed that they were heirs general to two parts of the manor of Glynde by the fine of 1305. The other third was held in dower by Joan, widow of Sir Richard Waleys III. The parties were at issue as to whether Sir John Waleys I was the son of Godfrey Waleys by on the curious premise that as Sir John was bedridden for more than a year before he died he must have been more than 69 (if born in 1305) 'for he was a sclendre mane and also lusty a knyght in ys dayes as was any of ys age wythine the reyme of Ingelond.' More rational proofs for Sir John's age were his homages for the Kentish manors in 1315 and 1318 recorded in 'the gret booke of fees' of the archbishop. He must have been at least in his eighties when he died. This lusty knight was a member of the retinue of Michael, Lord Poynings, in the Crecy-Calais campaign of 1346-7. His venerable age and military reputation made him a man of standing in Sussex; he was sheriff of Sussex and Surrey in 1364 and sat as knight of the shire in the parliaments from 1368-71. Sir John married twice and had two sons Andrew and William by his first wife Nicholas, daughter of Sir Andrew Medestede of West Firle, and two sons Hugh and Richard by his second wife, Alice Aspale. Andrew died soon after his return from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1378 and his brother William inherited the Waleys estates. Richard, the surviving son of Sir John's second marriage, received his mother's Aspale properties in Devonshire and founded a new branch of the family in that county. Sir William Waleys I represented Sussex as knight of the shire in the parliaments of 1380, 1382/3, 1387/8 and 1390; he was twice sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1383 and 1395. His wife Margaret, daughter of Sir John St. Clere, Chief Forester of Ashdown Forest to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, survived him and received her dower from her son John Waleys II in, 1409.
John Waleys II was the only lord of Glynde among his family not to achieve knighthood; he fought as an esquire under the banner of Thomas, Earl of Arundel, in the Agincourt campaign in 1415. Yet his was the most successful marriage of his line. His wife Joan Turk, whose father Sir Robert Turk had been a wealthy citizen and grocer of London, had inherited through her mother Beatrice the De Kendale and De Boys properties in Hertfordshire and Hampshire. The Waleys did not survive long to enjoy this fortunate addition to their estates. John Waleys II died in 1418 and his young son John Waleys III died within age leaving the inheritance to be disputed over and divided between his four sisters and their nearest male relations.
THE DIVISION OF THE WALEYS ESTATE IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY
John Waleys II, esq., died on 4 Oct. 1418 leaving a son John III, who inherited the estates, and four daughters, Beatrice, the wife of Reginald Cokayn, Joan, then wife of Robert Leventhorp, of Sawbridgeworth, co. Herts., Agnes, then wife of John Burgh of London, and Joan, who married Nicholas Morley of Aspenden, co. Herts. John Waleys III died before he reached his majority. The next male heir was his cousin William his wife Joan Bassingbourn, named in the fine, or by a first wife, the daughter of Sir Henry Tregoz. Both the parties were confused about the pedigree of the Waleys family. The coparceners claimed to inherit also under the grants made by Sir William Waleys I to his son John Waleys II of the Manors of Glynde, Hawkesden, Baynden and Patching in 1398. William Waleys III claimed as next heir male to his cousin John Waleys III under a deed of 26 April 1378 whereby the feoffees of Sir John Waleys I, confirmed the manors to Giles de Wrynglesworthe and John Sadeler for two years with remainders to Andrew Waleys and his brothers William, Hugh and Richard successively in tail male. This deed was executed during the absence of Andrew Waleys on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. This series of deeds presents difficulties as Wrynglesworth and Sadeler surrendered the manors to Andrew Waleys in Easter 1378, the very month when the confirmation for two years had been made. It may be that the deeds of 26 April and 29 April 1378 were made to supply the absence of original deeds and were executed after Sir John Waleys' death in 1375/6. The coparceners objected to the entail of 26 April 1378 on the grounds that the granting clause in the form of confirmavimus was insufficient in law to create the entail and that the deed lacked seals. The award of 1436 had found for the coparceners on these grounds. The extant deed, Glynde MS. GLY/4, is obviously a copy perhaps made in the middle of the 15th century.
The case was transferred in 1446 to the judgment of Noleweton and Cheke, Justices of the Common Pleas, and they with other judges heard the case at St. Andrew, Holborn, and at Whitefriars. A report was then given to the Chancellor who found for William Waleys III. On 4 July 1446, the king granted the custody of the manors to Sir John Fortescue by reason of the idiocy of William Waleys. Sir John was to maintain William in food, clothing and other necessaries as a gentleman. On 6 November 1451 a new grant of custody was made to John Boeff, John More, John Holeway, Stephen Hoper, William Boeff, Richard Gore and John Blancombe. The coparceners seem to have revived the case in Chancery on 4 November 1450, and most of the surviving case papers belong to the period 1450-55. The case appears to have been committed out of Chancery for hearing by arbiters. No award of arbitration is extant but a later case in the Chancery records states that 'by mediacion of their frendys' it was agreed that William Waleys III and his heirs male should have the whole manor of Glynde in satisfaction of his interest in the estate and that the four sisters and their heirs should have the manors of Hawkesden, Baynden and Patching. The De Banco Roll for Hilary 34 Hen. VI m. 132 (1455/6) records that the coparceners suffered a recovery of the manors of Hawkesden and Baynden against William Waleys III. A charter enrolled on m. 513 records the pedigrees of the two parties and recites a fine of Michaelmas 1455 whereby William Waleys III settled Glynde, Millynke Mill and 2a. land in Ringmer to the uses of himself and his heirs male with remainder to John Waleys IV of Devon. In 1457 a second fine to the same effect was levied. Some time between 1457 and 1460 William Waleys died, and John Waleys IV entered the manor of Glynde and sold it to Nicholas Morley [MSS. 28-35]. Robert Lee refused to recognise Morley's possession of the whole manor; he had enfeoffed Thomas Boleyn, clerk, with his share of the manor before the whole was restored to William Waleys III and he brought a case in Chancery claiming that Thomas should make a feoffment to new feoffees to the uses of Lee and his wife. Nicholas Morley entered a bill supporting his claim to the manor. The records of this case do not survive among the Glynde MSS. but are in the Public Record Office. The case was evidently transferred out of Chancery to the arbitration of Richard Chekke, Justice of the Common Pleas. He judged that Nicholas Morley should have the manor and Robert Lee and his heirs an annual rent charge of £8. 6s. 8d. from it. A dispute arose over the rent charge in 1497-8 and was taken to arbitration. Finally, in 1544, Thomas Morley purchased the reversion of the rent charge from Richard Lee for £120, though the rent charge which was held for life by William Kingeswell and his wife Elizabeth did not expire until the death of the latter in 1568.
The papers in the collection show that it was well over 100 years before the Morleys succeeded in extinguishing the rights of all other claimants to the manor of Glynde.
THE MORLEY FAMILY
The principal Waleys estates at Glynde and Mayfield were acquired by Nicholas Morley (1410- ?1474), a younger son of Francis Morley, a Lancashire gentleman, by marriage with Joan Waleys, one of the four daughters of John Waleys II, esq. Nicholas Morley was one of the principal gentlemen of Hertfordshire, a standing that was probably conferred on him by his marriage which brought him the Waleys estates in Aspenden, Ardeley and Westmill. He sat as M.P. for the shire in 1435, 1437, 1442, 1445-6, and acted as Justice of the Peace for Hertfordshire, 1435-7, 1451, 1457, 1461-4; escheator, 1439-40; sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire 1442-3. In 1449 and 1450 he was retained with 20 men at arms for service in France.
Nicholas appears to have been unscrupulous and tenacious in asserting his rights--perhaps necessary in the fifteenth century for the founder of a new family--but these characteristics brought him into conflict with his overlord the Archbishop of Canterbury and even with a group of tenants of his manor of Glynde who 'of theyr owen untrue ymaginacion amonges them' he complained, 'y hadde confedered and knytte ymaginying to the dysheryte the seyd Nicholas and Johanne.' His quarrel with Sir John Fortescue, the Lancastrian Chief Justice of the King's Bench, (?1394-?1476, see D.N.B.) may have provided a personal reason for his support of the Yorkist cause. Sir John Fortescue, as guardian of William Waleys III, opposed the efforts of Morley's wife and her sisters to win Glynde, and Morley's opponents accused him of slandering Sir John 'upon the Blakehethe to the ryght grete perell of suche as wer better thanne they both and also whate he said agenst him at Baldoke in Hertfordchire in the feire tyme ther the last somyre to the gret perell and lykely oundoynge of the same Sir John and god hadde not defended hym....' In 1461 Morley was active in support of the Yorkist cause in Hertfordshire and the neighbouring counties where he had been commissioned to call together the king's lieges and purvey horses. Towards the end of his life he interested himself in his Sussex estates and represented Bramber as M.P. 1453-4, Shoreham, 1460-1, and East Grinstead, 1467, and was Justice of the Peace for the county from 1463 till his death some time between 1472 and 1474.
His descendants, the Morleys of Glynde, seem to have lacked the ambition and good fortune to rise above the class of the small county gentry; they were satisfied with executing the duties of justice of the peace and sheriff for which they were fitted by rank, and occasionally representing Sussex boroughs in Parliament. Unlike the Trevors they never enjoyed the patronage of great nobles; their fortunes, not supplemented by the profits of office, were based solely on land and the iron industry.
Robert Morley, son of Nicholas Morley, was sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1488. His first wife may have been Mary Cawood who occurs in most of the older pedigrees but the wife named in his will in 1514 was Alice, daughter of Richard Warham, widow of John Barrett by whom she had a child Jane. Robert died in 1516 leaving elaborate instructions in his will for founding a chantry in the chapel of St. John in Glynde church and for 'a Tombe of Marble to be made, with my picture and my armes garnisshid thereon ....' where the Easter sepulchre stood. It has been suggested that his eldest son Thomas contracted an irregular marriage with his half-sister Jane by whom he had a daughter Dorothy. A second marriage with Catherine, daughter of Thomas Pelham of Laughton was more propitious for it linked the Morleys with a distinguished neighbouring family. Thomas died during his father's lifetime leaving an infant son Thomas, who after a long minority came of age in 1531 to find his inheritance threatened by a powerful neighbour Sir John Gage, K.G., Vice Chamberlain to the King (1479-1565, see D.N.B.). Thomas petitioned the King against Gage who was laying claim to the manor of Glynde, distraining upon his tenants and 'yntendying with contynuall sute in the law soo to Wery your seyd Subiect that he shalbe dryven to relynquyshe hys lawfull tytle yn the premysses' and the danger was averted.
The Morleys took part in the boom in the wealden iron industry in the mid-sixteenth century. Thomas Morley built a forge in Hawkesden Park in Mayfield and in 1548/9 he reported with other commissioners on iron mills in Hastings rape. The only one of his successors to engage directly in the trade was Anthony, his second son; the later Morleys evidently preferred to lease Hawkesden forge to other iron masters.
The Glynde estate was consolidated by William Morley, who succeeded his father Thomas in 1559; he purchased the manors of Combe and Beddingham (to the south of Glynde Reach) from Edward, Lord Wyndsor in 1562/3 and sold the Hertfordshire manors to Edward Halfhide in 1568 and 1574. William Morley has been credited with the building of the Elizabethan stone-and-flint mansion of Glynde Place, probably on the site of the earlier house. A doorway in the quadrangle bears his arms and initials and the date 1569. William was sheriff for Surrey and Sussex in 1580, and contributed £60 to the defence of the realm in 1588. His loyalty to the Government was commended in a certificate concerning Sussex Justices, 1587, in which he was described with Thomas Pelham and John Selwyn as 'good justices, as well in respect of religion as of the commonwealth.' He married twice; his first wife Ann, daughter of Anthony Pelham of Buckstepe in Warbleton had died by 1569 leaving him a son Harbert and three daughers. Mary, one of the daughters, married John Hay of Herstmonceux, and took as her jointure Glyndebourne, to be the seat of the Hays for the next two centuries. His second wife was Margaret, daughter of William Robarts of Warbleton by whom he had four more children, Robert, Anthony and Henry and a daughter Margaret. Harbert, the eldest son, sat as M.P. for Winchelsea in 1588 and 1592/3; in 1607 he acted as sheriff for the country. He was master of Glynde from 1597 to 1610 when he died leaving two young daughters --Margaret, who married Sir Humphry Tufton of Maidstone, Kent, bart., and Chrisogon, who married Richard Tufton of Shorne, Kent. Harbert had devised his lands to his half brother Robert Morley with a proviso that the latter was to pay £3,000 each to Chrisogon and Margaret. Robert managed to pay off the portions by mortgaging his estate to the Tuftons and including his two nieces in the entail of the Glynde estate in 1617. The Tufton claim was effectively barred by a recovery suffered by Harbert Morley in 1648. Robert Morley married in 1614, Susanna, daughter and heiress of Thomas Hodgson, of Framfield.
The career of Robert Morley reflects the gradual alienation of many of the loyal country gentry by the Stuart expedients of government. He sat in the parliaments of 1620 and 1623/4 as member for Bramber and in 1627/8 as member for Shoreham. He opposed the loan in 1621 and the composition for knighthood in 1629, but it is probable that he assisted in enforcing martial law in 1627 in his capacity as justice of the peace. The year before his death in 1632 he was sheriff for Surrey and Sussex. His son Harbert, then aged 16, became a royal ward.
The historian of the Civil War in Sussex was of the opinion that 'Colonel Harbert Morley of Glynde was perhaps the man of greatest influence in the county during this period and his vigilance and activity on behalf of the Parliamentary cause were unceasing throughout the war.' It is unfortunate that none of his personal papers survive among the Glynde MSS. to add any information to previous accounts of his career. He was educated at the Free School, Lewes, at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and finally at the Inner Temple. A little before the dissolution of the Short Parliament he was elected M.P. for Lewes and he sat for the borough in the Long Parliament, remaining in the Rump till its expulsion in 1653. As a colonel in the parliamentary army and deputy lieutenant of Sussex he raised men and money and procured gunpowder for the defence of the county. He was officially thanked by parliament for his share in the fighting at the siege of Chichester and the recapture of Arundel in 1643, over which he was set in command with Sir William Springett of Ringmer. His religious opinions may have resembled those of his friend and neighbour Springett who 'declined bishops and common prayer very early.' Morley was for a short time a member of the Assembly of Divines in 1643 and his opponents accused him of harsh treatment of the ejected royalist clergy and termed him 'the crooked rebel of Sussex.'
Although Morley was nominated one of the judges at the trial of Charles I, he refused to sign the death warrant. On 20 February 1650 he became a member of the Council of State. With his friend Sir Arthur Hesilrige [Haselrig] (d. 1661 see D.N.B.) he opposed Cromwell as long as he dared and after the expulsion of the Rump in 1653 he withdrew into private life, refusing to sit in the parliaments of 1654 and 1656. William Goffe (d. 1679?, see D.N.B.), Major General for Sussex in 1655, was uneasy at the influence Colonel Morley still possessed in his county where he had 'ruled the rost, by the help of a disaffected party, much to the griefe of the honest party.' Morley had promised his assistance as justice of the peace but refused to act as a commissioner and Goffe reported that his brother in law John Fagg(e) 'will not stir a hair's breadth without Col. Morley.'
In 1659 Morley re-entered parliament as member for Sussex and was now active in debates, speaking against the revived House of Lords and the Dutch war. He was appointed to the Council of State in May and in October was with Hesilrige one of the commissioners for the army. The Commissioners were appointed to guard against the danger of military violence from John Lambert (1619-83, see D.N.B.), who on 13 October 1659 marched on the Parliament. Morley's regiments defended Westminster Palace and the Abbey and Westminster Hall. Lambert marched with his troops to the Palace yard and 'there Morley met him and bid his stand. Morley had a pistol in his hand, and Lambert going as if he intended to have gone into the Hall, Morley swore "if he stirred a foot further he would shoot him." To this Lambert answered "Colonel Morley, I will go another way, though if I please I could pass this." He turned away and succeeded inoccupying the Parliament House from another entry.' This is the most revealing incident in Morley's career he was ready to risk his life in the defence of Parliament. Morley, Hesilrige and Valentine Walton (d. 1661?, see D.N.B.) retired to Portsmouth which they captured, returned to London and restored parliament. On 2 January 1660 a new Council of State was set up but Morley and Fagg, although elected, refused to take the oath abjuring the house of Stuart and promising fidelity to the Commonwealth and never became members. Morley was appointed Lieutenant of the Tower on 7 January 1659/60 which virtually gave him command of London. John Evelyn, the diarist, blamed Colonel Morley, his old schoolfellow, for failing to take the opportunity of restoring Charles II before this was done by General Monck and when in 1660 Morley had to procure his pardon at a cost of £1,000, Evelyn wrote 'O the sottish omission of this gentleman! what did I not undergo of danger in this negotiation to have brought him over to his Majesty's interest, when it was entirely in his hands!' Evelyn misunderstood the motives of Morley, whose first loyalty lay with his commander General Monck. Mr. E. S. de Beer, the editor of Evelyn's diary, has rehabilitated Morley's reputation and considers that 'In sub-ordinating himself to Monck, Morley appears to have adopted a course at once the wisest in his private interest and the most beneficial to the public welfare.' While his brother-in-law John Fagg obtained a baronetcy at the Restoration, Morley did nothing to ingratiate himself with the new regime. After being deprived of the Tower and his regiments he retired to Glynde and although he was elected M.P. for Rye it is unlikely that he ever sat in the Pension Parliament.
Harbert Morley married Mary, the daughter of Sir John Trevor II on 27 October 1648 at St. Peter Westcheap, London. By this marriage the Morleys joined the group of parliamentarian families--the Hampdens, Dentons, Winwoods and Wenmans--which were also related to the Trevors. Harbert died in 1667 at the age of 52 and his eldest son Robert died in 1670 leaving his only surviving brother William, then a minor, heir to Glynde. In 1671 William married Elizabeth, daughter of George Clerke, citizen and grocer of London; she brought him a portion of £6,000 and he agreed to settle a jointure of £800 annual value on her when he reached his majority. William and Elizabeth had a daughter Anna baptised 18 January 1677/8. William fell sick of smallpox in May 1679 during his attendance at the Commons as M.P. for Lewes. He is reported to have said to Dame Anna Dethick 'It was strange grandmother that I should give instructions for the making of my will on Fryday and should fall sick on the Sunday.' He died on 20 May 1679 at the house of Mr. Farmer in Threadneedle Street, London, having bequeathed by his will (15 May 1679, proved 31 May), his estate to his young daughter Anna, then to his wife Elizabeth for life with remainder to his cousin John Trevor IV. Immediately, on 30 May 1679, John Trevor filed a bill in Chancery against Elizabeth Morley, Anna Morley, Sir John Fagg and Mary his wife, to prevent their contesting the will and to rebutt their allegations that there were 'diverse ill and undue meanes used in and about the procuring and obtayning the said pretended writing' and that the testator was not of sound mind when he made the will. The outcome was favourable for Trevor; Anna Morley died and was buried 19 August 1679 and he married the widow on 23 October 1679 thus enjoying Glynde during her lifetime instead of waiting for her death before his remainder could take effect.
THE TREVOR FAMILY
John Trevor IV who inherited Glynde in 1679 was the head of a Welsh family with estates centring on the residences of Trevalyn in Denbigh and Plas Teg in Flint. He and his successors chose to live at Glynde and in London and he brought many of his family archives to his new home in Sussex. These archives provide many details about the Trevors and their affairs which were unknown to a recent historian of the family.
The Trevors of Trevalyn were a junior branch of the Trevors of Brynkinalt in Denbigh, who claimed royal descent from Tudor Trevor, a Welsh prince of the tenth century. At first there was little to distinguish the Trevors from many other Welsh squires of ancient lineage but they had an eye to the main chance, had the good fortune to find patrons to satisfy their ambitions and by the end of the sixteenth century had risen to be one of the leading families in east Denbighshire. The history of their advance in the early years of the century is obscure. In March 1528/9 the King granted to John Trevor, yeoman of the guard, a lease for ten years of the lordships and manors of Sandeford and Osleston in the Lordship of Bramfield and Yale in Denbighshire; in 1539 the reversion of his keepership of wood in 'Le little parke' in the lordship of Chirk was granted to Geoffrey Bromefelde. This John Trevor may have been the father of the Elizabethan John Trevor III who set the family on its upward path by joining the service of Sir Richard Sackville (d. 1566 see D.N.B.), Treasurer at Wars to Henry VIII and Chancellor of the Court of Augmentations, to whom he was related by marriage. The close and friendly relationship with the Sackvilles was maintained after Sir Richard's death and in his will of 1589 John Trevor commended his children to the care of Lord Buckhurst and his heir Mr. Robert Sackville. Only the outlines of John Trevor's career are known from his funeral inscription in Gresford church: 'The years of his youth he spent abroad in the wars in France under Henry VIII; the middle years of his life he passed in travelling through foreign countries; his latter days he spent at home in the government and service of his native country.' In 'his latter days' he held two minor offices, that of particular surveyor of lands in Cheshire in the survey of the Exchequer at a salary of £13 6s. 8d. granted during pleasure on 19 Aug. 1559 and Queen's attorney in the lordship in Bromfield and Yale at £5 yearly in 1575. The Sackvilles evidently rewarded John Trevor with annuities from their Sussex properties; from 1563-75 he was enjoying annuities of £60 from the manor of Wilmington, £13 6s. 8d. from 'Wanmarshe,' and £13 6s. 8d. from 'an Iron myll in Sussex that one Boyer doth occupie.' John Trevor began to build Trevalyn Hall in Allington, Denbigh, in 1576 which was completed in about 1606.
John Trevor III died in 1589 leaving five sons; Randle died soon after him; the others Richard, John, Sackville and Thomas were men of ability winning knighthoods for their achievements in the army, public office, the navy and law. Richard inherited the family estates but soon ran heavily into debt, no doubt by trying to maintain 'the port, charge and countenance of a gentleman.' He tried to repair his fortunes by obtaining local offices and pressed his brother John to win favours for him from his patrons in London. Ireland offered many opportunities for the Welsh gentry in the sixteenth century and Richard distinguished himself in the Irish wars winning a knighthood from Lord Deputy Russell in 1597. His career in local politics as follower of the Earl of Essex has been treated by Professor A. H. Dodd and his part in two lurid election disputes in Denbigh in 1588 and 1601 has earned him a place in Professor J. E. Neale's The Elizabethan House of Commons. Sir Richard had no sons by his marriage with Catherine Puleston and his brother John arranged to relieve him of his financial difficulties on the assurance that his heirs would inherit the Trevor estate on Sir Richard's death. Of the two younger brothers Sir Sackville had a distinguished fighting career ending with the rank of admiral and Sir Thomas was appointed Solicitor-General to the Prince of Wales in 1619 and fourth Baron of the Exchequer in the following year.
John, the second brother, was the ancestor of the Trevors of Glynde. He is a choice example of the corrupt and avaricious Jacobean courtier in an age of the lowest standards, when even the Lord Chancellor Bacon could be bribed. John began his career as secretary to Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham, afterwards Earl of Nottingham. Lord Buckhurst had married Margaret Howard, daughter of the 4th Duke of Norfolk and Professor Dodd believes that 'it may well have been through her that the next generation of the Trevors moved into the more perilous orbit of the Howards.' More perilous certainly but much more profitable. John Trevor was given the junior of the two seats for the Howard pocket borough of Bletchingley in the 1597 parliament and he shared with Nottingham's younger son Charles Howard an annuity out of the valuable farm of the sweet wines. In 1598 Nottingham as Lord High Admiral obtained John's appointment as Surveyor to the Navy, one of the five coheiress of Edmund Hampden of Wendover, Buckinghamshire. Chamberlain reports that in 1617 a marriage with the son of Sir John Packington had been arranged for this lady by her uncle Sir Alexander Hampden which 'came so neere to conclusion that all articles were agreed, and the wedding clothes made, but when yt came to the upshot, the gentlewoman had no manner of liking, nor could by any meanes be persuaded which so displeased her uncle, that he left her worse by ten thousand pound than he meant to have don, which doth no whit grieve her in respect that she hath her choice.' Her choice was Sir John Trevor II and in the draft articles of their marriage settlement it is carefully set down that the marriage had been arranged 'with the good likinge love and trewe affectione of the sayd John Trevor and Anne Hampden as they profess and acknowledge, without compulsione of their parents or friends.' John's marriage was a happy one but his sister Jane has an unsatisfactory husband, Sir Edward Fitton, bart., of Gawsworth, a drunkard and spendthrift, who was only saved from financial ruin by his brother-in-law Trevor.
The main interest of Sir John Trevor II's career is why he chose to join the side of Parliament in the Civil War rather than the Crown to which he and his father had been indebted for their grants of office. After the death of the Earl of Nottingham in 1624 the Trevors had found a new patron in the Earl of Pembroke who was a leader of the opposition to the court and the Duke of Buckingham. Through his wife, Anne Hampden, Sir John was related to other opposition families, the Wenmans, Dentons and Winwoods, and by his son John's marriage with Ruth, the daughter of John Hampden 'the Patriot,' he was doubly linked with that famous family. Moreover Sir John was a Puritan by conviction as is shown by his membership of the Propagation Committee for North Wales and the protection he later gave to a Denbigh minister ejected under the Act of Uniformity.
Sir John had several grievances against the Crown. He and his partners had been forced to renew their lease of the coal farm in 1639 before the old lease expired and pay a high price for the privilege. In the same year he had been required to go with the king to the North and in the next year to lend Charles £1,000 and he was reluctant to do either. Finally he was deprived of his office of Surveyor of Windsor Castle. All these considerations must have prompted Sir John to support the Long Parliament in which he sat from 1640-53 as member for Grampound. He was a supporter of Cromwell to whom he was distantly related and he sat on various parliamentary committees during the Interregnum. He was an extensive buyer of land from the Treason Trustees and yet was sufficiently pliable to be an early supporter of the Restoration. principal posts in the administration, which carried a salary of £40 a year and great opportunities for enrichment. Shortly after the accession of James I Trevor was knighted, probably as a favour to the Howards, who had become the leading faction of the new court. Other offices were showered on Sir John in 1603; in June he was made Steward and Receiver at Windsor Castle for life, in July, Keeper of the Fort at Upnor near Chatham, and in November, Keeper of the Palace and Park of Oatlands in Surrey. Sir John can take little credit for his activities as Surveyor of the Navy. The Commission set up by the king in 1608 to enquire into corruption in the navy reported that Sir John had abused his office by profiteering in purveyance of provisions to the king's ships, being 'the first Surveior that ever since the first erection of the Navie dealt in it.' It condemned the Surveyor, the Treasurer Sir Robert Mansell, and the Master Shipwright, Phineas Pett, for their venture with the Resistance, a ship built out of the king's stores, which sailed as a transport in the fleet carrying the embassy led by the Earl of Nottingham to conclude the peace treaty with Spain in 1605, and which made a profit of £300 from selling off naval stores to the Spaniards. Sir John thought it prudent to retire and sold his office in 1611.
A more legitimate source of profit was the farm of the impositions on the coal trade which was leased to Sir John Trevor I and his three partners in January 1603/4. His papers show Sir John was an active partner and an iron chest 'capable to receave half a yeares profit' together with cash books for receipts and issues were kept at his London house in Cannon Row. He appears to have received an annual dividend of about £1,500 (£1,530 in 1624) but his son John who succeeded him in the partnership had some lean years during the Civil War. The Trevors were unable to renew their lease at the Restoration. Sir John had bought the Plas Teg estate near Mold, Flintshire, from his kinsman David Trevor, who was also descended from John Trevor then of Brynkinalt. Here Sir John built a mansion in the early years of the seventeenth century. He married Margaret Trevanion, daughter of Hugh Trevanion, a Cornish gentleman, whose other daughter Elizabeth married Robert Carey, afterwards Earl of Monmouth. Sir John died on 20 February 1629/30 and his widow Lady Trevor quarrelled with her eldest son John over the provision made for her in her late husband's will, but good relations were later re-established by the mediation of their friends.
Sir John Trevor II was educated at Queens' College, Cambridge, 1612, and entered the Inner Temple in 1613. In 1619 he was knighted and in February of the same year he married Anne Hampden, the daughter and
His son John Trevor III entered parliament in 1646 as M.P. for Flint, in 1654 he was again returned for Flint and in 1655 he was on the trade committee nominated by the Council of State. John was not a Cromwellian. He spoke in the House against the military rule of the major-generals and he argued in favour of giving the Second Chamber the name of Lords: 'We know what the House of Lords could do. We know not what this "Other House" may do. It may claim to be the House of Commons to open the people's purse at bothe ends.' After the Restoration John Trevor was one of the group of Independents who found a patron in the Duke of Buckingham and it was through the Duke's influence that Trevor was entrusted with confidential missions to France in 1663 and 1668. In 1668 Trevor was knighted and purchased one of the two Secretaryships of State for £8,000, granted only during pleasure and not for life. This should have been the peak of Trevor's achievement but in fact Sir John was little more than a cipher in office. His sympathy with the Dutch and his nonconformist leanings made Charles II unwilling to let him share in the secret diplomacy with France and he was over-shadowed by Arlington, the other Secretary of State. Whether with more freedom of action he might have revealed real ability will never be known for he died of a fever at the early age of 46. His second son Thomas made a brilliant career for himself in the law and at last brought a peerage to the family, the Barony of Trevor of Bromham in Bedfordshire, though its acquisition as one of the twelve peerages created by Queen Anne to save the Tory peace with France in 1711 made it a somewhat doubtful honour.
The elder son of Sir John Trevor III, John Trevor IV, who inherited Glynde in 1679, died in 1686 and his widow Elizabeth Trevor married as her third husband, John, Lord Cutts. (Sussex Notes and Queries, vol. XIV, p. 246.) His son John Morley Trevor came of age in 1702 after a minority of 16 years, and in the same year married Lucy, the daughter of Edward Montagu of Horton, Northants. There were nine daughters of this marriage and only one son John Trevor V. While the younger branch of the Trevors, Thomas, Lord Trevor, and his sons, showed all the family characteristics of thrust and ambition, it seems as though all the ability had gone out of the elder branch of the family. John Trevor V is a melancholy illustration of this point. He was related to the all-powerful Pelhams and sat as M.P. for Lewes in 1741 in the Duke of Newcastle's interest. The Pelhams gave him a good start in life by procuring for him a Commissionership in Admiralty in 1743 which Horace Walpole noted 'is much disliked for he is of no consequence for estate, and less for parts, but is a relation of the Pelhams.' John married Betty Frankland, daughter of Sir Thomas Frankland of Thirkleby, Yorkshire, but she died in 1742 when only 25 and his tragic loss seems to have driven the young man mad. His brother-in-law, George Boscawen, then unaware of Trevor's derangement, considered 'he would never be the man he was till he had got him a wife again.' All the previous historians of the Trevor family have believed that John Trevor V died in a duel but the letters of Colonel Charles Russell in the MSS. of Mrs. Frankland Astley tell the true story. On 31 May 1743 Fanny Russell wrote to her brother Lieut.-Col. Charles Russell about Trevor that 'instead of his growing better he seems to grow worse' and she reported on 17 June that Trevor had challenged Lord Talbot to a duel on a pretended slight to Diana Frankland and two of Trevor's sisters. Lord Talbot behaved with restraint and apologised but later 'Trevor went with Dick to Headly where he did nothing but dance and sing and write challenges all day long, and frightened Dick so much that they sent for his cousin Dr. Trevor to come and take care of him.' In July the rumour spread that he had cut his throat; others thought he had been wounded in a duel. Fanny Russell wrote on 22 July 'I had a letter from Peggy Trevor the other day (who is with Mrs. Boscawen at Windsor) saying that she was very miserable about her brother who was ill of a fever.' The true story seems to be that when they got beyond Northampton he sent his sisters on in the coach, and he would follow them alone in a chaise, 'so like two great fools they left him and by and by the driver stopping to ask about the roads, found poor Trevor making wounds on himself with a pair of scissors. He prayed the coachman to kill him as he was the most miserable man on earth; however the man got help, and Dr. Trevor and Hawkins the surgeon were sent for.' Later he was reported to be much improved but on 14 August Fanny Russell wrote 'The report of poor Mr. Trevor cutting his throat was not true, but he attempted to fling himself out of the window. He is so much worse that he has been taken to Chelsea.' On 21st September Colonel Russell wrote to his wife 'Fanny has sent me a long and dismal account of poor Trevor, that he is at last happily released from his misery.' He was only 27.
John Trevor V bequeathed Glynde and his Sussex estates to his kinsman Dr. Richard Trevor and his heirs while his lands in Wales were to be shared by seven of his eight sisters. The Trevor sisters contested the will, alleging that 'the testator did not make the will of sound mind' but without success.
Richard Trevor, youngest son of Thomas, Lord Trevor, was the first of his family to make the church his profession, an indication that the social status of the clergy was rising by the eighteenth century. He was educated at Queen's College, Oxford; by the age of 20 he was fellow of All Souls; at 24 Doctor of Civil Law and a priest and at 27 Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. In 1744 he became Bishop of St. Davids and in 1752 he was translated to Durham. He was a great favourite with George II and seemed destined for the highest honours. He suffered two disappointments: he failed to secure election as Chancellor of Oxford University because his two opponents combined their votes against him and the greatest prize of all--Canterbury--eluded him. Horace Walpole had reported in 1758 'It is believed that St. Durham goes to Canterbury and St. Asaph follow him' but it was not to be. Walpole's 'St. Durham' was a gibe at Trevor's reputation for saintliness. Even his appearance earned him the nickname of 'the Beauty of Holiness.' He performed his duties as bishop of Durham in a manner that impressed his contemporaries, used to absentee bishops, for he lived 'all the summer months at Durham or Auckland, but chiefly the latter, where he made great improvements in the castle and park and took much exercise in walking.' It was no wonder that the preacher at his funeral said of him that 'never were the shining qualities of the Palatine more justly tempered by the milder graces of the Diocesan.'
The remainder of the year Trevor spent in London or at Glynde. No single owner of Glynde Place did so much to change the appearance of the mansion or the village. He spent a great deal of his considerable income on improving Glynde Place. The entrance to the house was altered and a new range of stables built. The Bishop bought pictures and bronzes to adorn the mansion, transforming the Elizabethan country house to a charming and comfortable residence fit for a man of taste. The old Glynde church was demolished and an elegant Georgian structure erected in its place at the Bishop's expense. The establishment at Glynde revolved around the visits of the new owner, whose influence is reflected in the number of estate papers and accounts for the period 1744-71. The Bishop enlarged the estate by buying properties in Horsted Keynes and Steyning and consolidated the nucleus of the estate in Glynde and Beddingham.
On the Bishop's death in 1771 his eldest brother Robert, 4th Lord Trevor, inherited the Sussex estate. Robert was educated at Queen's College, Oxford, took his B.A. in 1725 and was elected fellow of All Souls in the same year. 'He was a good scholar and a collector of drawings and prints.' Several of his Latin poems 'Britannia,' 'Lathmon' and 'Villa Bromhamensis' were published as 'Poemata Hampdeniana' by his son John at Parma in 1792. Robert had been Secretary of the Legation at the Hague from 1734-9 and minister there from 1739-46. In 1746 he resigned and was appointed a Commissioner of the Revenue in Ireland, 1759, and Joint Postmaster-General, 1759-1765, offices which show that his adherence to the Whigs did not go unrewarded. Robert's distant relative John Hampden, the last of his family, bequeathed all his Buckinghamshire estates to him and in 1776 when Robert was created a viscount he took the title of Viscount Hampden of Great and Little Hampden. According to Horace Walpole the title was obtained through the influence of Robert's son-in-law Henry, [12th] Earl of Suffolk. Robert married Constantia, the daughte of Peter Anthony de Huybert, Lord Van Kruyningen of Holland, and had two sons Thomas and John. Thomas had been M.P. for Lewes in 1768 in the Duke of Newcastle's interest. He married firstly Catherine, the daughter of General David Graeme of Braco Castle, Perth, who died in 1804, and secondly Jane Maria, daughter of George Brown of Ellistoun but had no issue by either wife. Lord Hampden and his first wife were attacked in The Female Jockey Club (1794) 'but the most serious charge against him is his having left the Whigs on the outbreak of the French Revolution, and against her that she was languid and insipid and addicted to musical parties and cardplaying.' Lady Hampden's portrait by Gainsborough hangs in the gallery at Glynde Place. Thomas died in 1824 and his brother John, who had been a diplomatist, British Minister at Munich, 1780, and at Turin, 1783-98, succeeded to the title only to die three weeks later, also without heirs.
John, 3rd Viscount Hampden, bequeathed the Glynde estate to Henry Otway Brand to whom he was remotely connected by virtue of their common ancestor Sir John Trevor III who died in 1672. Gertrude Trevor, one of the daughters of John Morley Trevor, had married the Hon. Charles Roper and their son Trevor Charles Roper succeeded in 1786 to the Barony of Dacre through his grandmother Anne, Baroness Dacre in her own right. Trevor Charles Roper, 18th Baron Dacre, married Mary Jane Fludyer but he died without issue in 1794 and his wife bequeathed the Trevor Plas Teg estate in Flint to a Roper cousin Cadwallader Blayney Roper, who took the name Trevor-Roper in 1809. Gertrude, sister of Trevor Charles Roper, became Baroness Dacre in her own right. She married Thomas Brand of the Hoo, Hertfordshire; her elder son Thomas Brand succeeded her in 1819 as 20th Baron Dacre and her younger son was the Henry Otway Brand who inherited the Glynde esta te in 1824 and who took the name of Trevor.
When in 1851 Thomas, Lord Dacre, died without issue Henry Otway Trevor became 21st Baron Dacre and the Glynde estate passed to his younger son Henry Bouverie William Brand under the provision that the holder of the Barony of Dacre should always relinquish the Glynde estate in favour of the junior line. Henry Brand married Eliza, daughter of General Robert Ellice, in 1838. He first entered politics in 1846 at the age of 32 as private secretary to Sir George Grey (1799-1882 see D.N.B.) then Home Secretary in Lord John Russell's government. On 6 July 1852 he entered parliament as member for Lewes for which he sat until 1865 and for the remainder of his parliamentary career from 1868 to 1884 he was returned as member for Cambridgeshire. Brand was Lord of the Treasury under Palmerston 1855-58 and from 1859-66 parliamentary secretary to the treasury in the Liberal governments under Palmerston and Russell for which he acted as senior Liberal whip in the Commons. In 1872 he was elected Speaker of the House of Commons. 'Brand's long tenure of the position of party whip caused doubts as to his fitness for the speakership, but these were soon solved by Brand's impartial performance of his duties; he endeared himself to the House by his uniform suavity.' He held the Speakership at a critical time in parliamentary history when the rules of parliamentary procedure were being exploited for obstruction by Parnell's Irish party. Brand's most celbrated action as Speaker was his enforcement of the closure on his own responsibility after a sitting of 41 hours on a motion by W. E. Forster for leave to introduce his Coercion Bill for Ireland. Gladstone consulted the Speaker when drawing up resolutions for the reform of procedure.
Brand received the G.C.B. at the close of the 1881 session and on his retirement in 1884 was created Viscount Hampden of Glynde, thus reviving the Hampden title held by his ancestors. In 1890 he succeeded his brother Thomas as 23rd Baron Dacre and his youngest son Thomas inherited Glynde. For the descent of the viscountcy see pedigree.
Thomas Seymour Brand, younger brother of Lord Hampden, made the navy his career; he was flag lieutenant to Lord Alcester in 1874-7 and commanded Bittern at the bombardment of Alexandria in 1882; he retired with the rank of Rear-Admiral. (See MS. GLY/763 for the midshipman's logbook of Thomas Seymour Brand.) He married Annie Blanche, the youngest daughter of Henry Lomax Gaskell of Kiddington Hall, Woodstock, Oxfordshire. In 1916 his son Humphrey Ranulph Brand became owner of Glynde and, since his death in 1953, his widow Mrs. Brand has lived at Glynde Place.
Cal. P. R. Calendar of Patent Rolls
Cal. S.P. Dom. Calendar of State Papers Domestic
D.N.B. Dictionary of National Biography
P.C.C. Prerogative Court of Canterbury
H.M.C. Historical Manuscripts Commission
V.C.H. Victoria County History
Other abbreviations used in the text:
d., dau. daughter
d. [with date] died
f., ff. and fo(s). folio(s)
m.; mm. membrane(s) of parchment
N.d. no date
p.; pp. page(s)
The spelling of personal and place names is given exactly as in the original, even where this leads to inconsistencies within one entry. The spelling of Christian names has however been modernised unless any special interest arises from the original, as for example 17th century 'Harbert' for Herbert."
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