Catalogue description Catalogue of the papers and correspondence Of SIR EDWARD CRISP BULLARD, FRS (1907-1980)

This record is held by Cambridge University: Churchill Archives Centre

Details of CSAC 100.4.84
Reference: CSAC 100.4.84
Title: Catalogue of the papers and correspondence Of SIR EDWARD CRISP BULLARD, FRS (1907-1980)



CSAC 100.4.84/A.1 - CSAC 100.4.84/A.14 Biographical, autobiographical, bibliographical


CSAC 100.4.84/A.15 - CSAC 100.4.84/A.47 Diaries


CSAC 100.4.84/A.48 - CSAC 100.4.84/A.123 Career, honours and awards


CSAC 100.4.84/A.124- CSAC 100.4.84/A.205 Family and personal


CSAC 100.4.84/A.206- CSAC 100.4.84/A.257 Photographs


CSAC 100.4.84/A.258- CSAC 100.4.84/A.261 Tape recordings


SECTION B CAMBRIDGE CSAC 100.4.84/B.1- CSAC 100.4.84/B.92


CSAC 100.4.84/B.1 - CSAC 100.4.84/B.88 Department of Geodesy and Geophysics


CSAC 100.4.84/B.1 - CSAC 100.4.84/B.4 Early history of the Department


CSAC 100.4.84/B.5 - CSAC 100.4.84/B.29 Postwar organisation and research, 1943-48


CSAC 100.4.84/B.30- CSAC 100.4.84/B.73 Research and administration, 1956-80


CSAC 100.4.84/B.74- CSAC 100.4.84/B.88 Lectures


CSAC 100.4.84/B.89- CSAC 100.4.84/B.92 Other Cambridge departments and institutions


SECTION C CALIFORNIA CSAC 100.4.84/C.1- CSAC 100.4.84/C.43


CSAC 100.4.84/C.1 - CSAC 100.4.84/C.11 Administrative and personal


CSAC 100.4.84/C.12- CSAC 100.4.84/C.28 Research and academic


CSAC 100.4.84/C.29- CSAC 100.4.84/C.43 Lectures and teaching


SECTION D RESEARCH CSAC 100.4.84/D.1 - CSAC 100.4.84/D.651








CSAC 100.4.84/G.1 - CSAC 100.4.84/G.110 Writings on scientific topics


CSAC 100.4.84/G.111- CSAC 100.4.84/G.135 Biographical writings


CSAC 100.4.84/G.136, CSAC 100.4.84/G.137 Reviews


CSAC 100.4.84/G.138- CSAC 100.4.84/G.175 Lectures


CSAC 100.4.84/G.176- CSAC 100.4.84/G.192 Radio and television broadcasts


CSAC 100.4.84/G.193- CSAC 100.4.84/G.268 Correspondence re publications, lectures and broadcasts


SECTION H VISITS CSAC 100.4.84/H.1 - CSAC 100.4.84/H.34


SECTION J CORRESPONDENCE CSAC 100.4.84/J.1 - CSAC 100.4.84/J.206


The following paragraphs aim only to give a brief guide to its substance and interest; additional explanatory notes accompany many of the Sections, sub-sections and individual entries in the catalogue.


The surviving papers cover almost every aspect of Bullard's career. The chief lacunae in this collection are his wartime papers (see CSAC 100.4.84/J.7 where Bullard expresses his regret at having destroyed these in 1945) and his official papers at Toronto and at NPL. Despite efforts to assemble as full a collection as possible, there are probably also gaps in the correspondence files, deriving from frequent transatlantic migrations.


Section A includes (CSAC 100.4.84/A.9) Bullard's own autobiographical notes of his family, childhood and schooldays, written in 1973 and updated in 1980, as well as many tributes by others, some of which have been drawn upon in compiling the catalogue. The material on his career, though incomplete, yet includes offers of many posts which he declined and which are not always generally known. The 'personal' material includes several items on Bullard's antiquarian book collection (CSAC 100.4.84/A.185- CSAC 100.4.84/A.189). Section B is mainly concerned with the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics at Cambridge and includes the original correspondence leading up to its foundation in 1921 (CSAC 100.4.84/B.1, CSAC 100.4.84/B.2), and Bullard's efforts to re-invigorate it after the Second World War (CSAC 100.4.84/B.5- CSAC 100.4.84/B.29).


Section C records his connection with the University of California, chiefly the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Some of the items deal with his lecturing, teaching and examining there at the end of his life (CSAC 100.4.84/C.29- CSAC 100.4.84/C.43); for all his experience as a lecturer he admits in his letters of resignation (CSAC 100.4.84/C.11) that direct contact with undergraduate work was new to him and he must have been gratified by the unmistable warmth of response he met (CSAC 100.4.84/C.31, CSAC 100.4.84/C.34).


Section D (Research) is the largest Section and documents almost all of Bullard's many research interests, some more comprehensively than others. It is remarkable to see the extent of manuscript notes, calculations, diagrams, site descriptions, drafts and, later, computer programs all in Bullard's hand whether written in the African field, as Director of NPL or as Professor of Geophysics at Cambridge. Especially full are the records for gravity measurement including the famous 1933-34 expedition to East Africa, for heat-flow research including the 1938 Atlantic expedition, and for the work on dynamo theory and on computing applications. His last research, on energy sources and nuclear waste disposal, is also documented, and includes drafts for a book on the subject on which Bullard was working right up to his death. Less fully represented in the surviving papers is Bullard's contribution to the theory of continental drift and plate tectonics. Of more general interest is CSAC 100.4.84/D.273, Bullard's detailed account of (it seems) every penny spent on the 1933-34 expedition in East Africa. The famous story of his being treed by lions, however, is not recorded: there is a reference to his 'experiences with lions' in a letter (at CSAC 100.4.84/D.366) but this is dated January 1939 and refers to a later trip to South Africa to study terrestrial heat-flow. In sum, this Section provides an impressive record of Bullard's distinguished research career; he may have borne his learning lightly but its presence is irrefutable.


Sections E and F document Bullard's public life as consultant, committee member and adviser on science policy. Because of the confidential or official nature of much of this work, the surviving material is sometimes sparse. Section G includes several unpublished, or unlisted, works, among them substantial drafts for a book on optics, in collaboration with P.B. Moon, commissioned by Cambridge University Press in 1934 (CSAC 100.4.84/G.2- CSAC 100.4.84/G.18). There is also a rather full record of Bullard's joint editorship with N.F. (Sir Nevill) Mott of the International Monographs in Physical Science for the Clarendon Press (CSAC 100.4.84/G. 194- CSAC 100.4.84/G.230). The sub-section on 'Lectures' (CSAC 100.4.84/G.138- CSAC 100.4.84/G.175) is of interest in showing at once Bullard's mastery of his subject and the temperamental poise, even panache, which enabled him to lecture with rivetting success on the basis of half a page of notes.


Both Sections H and J are somewhat disappointing in that it is unlikely that they represent more than a selection of Bullard's visits and conferences (H) and correspondence (J). The latter Section contains a high proportion of material dating from his later years when he was frequently consulted by historians of several disciplines for his recollections and opinions.


Bullard's historical interests were not confined to the events of his own career, though it is true that he was at pains to collect material about the early history of the Cambridge Department (Section D) and Bushy House his official residence as Director of NPL (Section A). But he was a respected collector of scientific books, with a special interest in Newton and Halley; he played an important role in the Royal Society's Halley Tercentenary celebrations (Section G), advised the Institute of Physics on the disposal of its historical book collection (Section F) and presented a scion of Newton's apple tree for planting at the new buildings of the Cambridge Department (Section B). He wrote several biographical tributes and accounts of colleagues; the most substantial of these is perhaps the memoir of W.M. Ewing, while a more 'light-hearted' (his description) account of Rutherford published originally in NATURE was selected for quotation in L. and H. Fowler, Cambridge Commemorated, 1984.


Compiled by Jeannine Alton and Peter Harper


The work of the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre, and the production of this catalogue, are made possible by the support of the following societies and institutions:


The Biochemical Society


The Charles Babbage Foundation for the History of Information Processing


The Institute of Physics


The Institution of Electrical Engineers


The Institution of Mechanical Engineers


The Nuffield Foundation


The Rhodes Trustees


The Royal Society of London


The Wolfson Foundation




Our main debt is to Dr. Belinda Bullard for her initiative in assembling material, her encouragement, and her comments on the draft catalogue.


We are also indebted to:


Dr. H.C. Jenkyns and Dr. C.E. Phelps for information, and for their patience.


Dr. D.H. Matthews, for information and for additional material.


Mrs. D.C. Day, Archivist of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for information and additional material.


Lady Phillips, for help with indexing.


Mrs. M.M. Edwards, for patiently typing various drafts of the catalogue.

Date: 1916-1984
Related material:



Certificates and scrolls of honour remain in family hands.


Material relating to the Anchor Brewery (the Bullard family firm) is held at the Norfolk and Norwich Record Office.


Material assembled by Bullard for his memorial writings on W.M. Ewing is at Columbia University, New York.


Correspondence exchanged with W.H. Munk and others is in the Archives of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego.


Official papers relating to Bullard's service on government committees are held at the Air Historical Branch, Ministry of Defence.

Held by: Cambridge University: Churchill Archives Centre, not available at The National Archives
Language: English

Bullard, Sir, Edward Crisp, 1907-1980, knight, scientist and geophysicist

Physical description: 117 boxes
Access conditions:











In view of the very full and frank nature of some of the documents it will readily be understood that they are not all currently available for consultation. Material of this kind occurs in Sections A, C, E, F, G and J.

Custodial history:

The collection, which is very extensive, was received at various dates 1981-84 from Dr. Belinda Bullard (Bullard's eldest daughter) who had assembled it from several locations: Bullard's homes in Cambridge, England, and at La Jolla, California, where he died, his office at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (also at La Jolla) and the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, Cambridge University, where a laboratory now bears his name.


In addition, Lady (Ursula) Bullard made available the sketchbook at CSAC 100.4.84/A.140; Dr. D.H. Matthews added the photocopied account of the pioneering seismic expedition of 1938 at CSAC 100.4.84/D.350. The photocopies of the article on Bullard's work on marine heat-flow (CSAC 100.4.84/A.4) and of his correspondence on the subject with R. Revelle (CSAC 100.4.84/D.415A) were sent by the Archivist of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, where the originals are housed.

Publication note:



The following list of 'PUBLICATIONS BY EDWARD BULLARD' was, as stated at the head of its first page, a 'working copy' which Bullard kept reasonably up to date with ms. additions; there is one posthumous entry for 1981. It is a photocopy of the list included at A. 12 and has been used as a basis for dating drafts and other manuscript material in the collection, references being given in the form (Bibliog. ...).


It is recognised that the list does not represent a complete Bibliography (see especially the Introduction to Section G) but it is the only currently available guide to Bullard's publications.


1930 Bullard, E. & Massey, H.S.W. Remarks on the scattering of electrons by atomic fields. Proc. Camb. phil. Soc. 26, 556-563.


1931 a Bullard, E. & Massey, H.S.W. The elastic scattering of slow electrons in argon. Proc. R. Soc. A, 130, 579-590.


b Bullard, E. & Massey, H.S.W. The elastic scattering of slow electrons in gases II. Proc. R. Soc. A, 133, 637-651.


c Bullard, E. & Moon, P.B. A mechanical method for the solution of second-order linear differential equations. Proc. Camb. phil. Soc. 27, 546-552.


1933 a Bullard, E. & Massey, H.S.W. The scattering of electrons by nitrogen molecules. Proc. Camb. phil. Soc. 29, 511-521.


b Bullard, E. The effect of a magnetic field on relative gravity determinations with invar pendulums. Proc. Camb. phil. Soc. 29, 288-296.


c Bullard, E. The observation of gravity by means of invariable pendulums. Proc. R. Soc. A., 141, 233-258.


1934 Bullard, E. Note on the Hayford-Bowie tables for calculating g.Z.Geophys. 10, 318-322.


1935 Bullard,E. Gravity measurements in East Africa. Bull. geol. Surv. Uganda No. 2, 28-29.


1936 a Bullard, E. Gravity measurements in East Africa. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 235,445-531.


b Bullard, E. & Jolly, H.L.P. Gravity measurements in Great Britain. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. Geophys. Suppl. 3, 443-477.


1937 a Horsfield, W. & Bullard, E. Gravity measurements in Tanganyika Territory. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 4, 94-113.


b Munsey, D.F. & Bullard, E. Gravity measurements in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 4, 114-121


1938 a Bullard, E. The theory of the Benioff seismograph. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 4, 336-340.


b Bullard, E. & Kerr-Grant, C. The design and testing of geophones and their amplifiers. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 4, 341-350.


c Bullard, E. Thermal conductivities of rocks (report of a committee). Rep. Br. Ass. Advmt. Sci. 271-277.


d Bullard, E. Underground structure near Cambridge. In The Cambridge Region. Appendix to Rep. Br. Ass. Advmt. Sci. 4-5.


e Bullard, E. The disturbances of temperature gradient in the earth's crust by ineqalities of height. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 4, 360-362.


f Bullard, E. & Gaskell, T.F. Seismic methods in submarine geology. Nature, Lond 142, 916.


1939 a Mace, C. & Bullard, E. Gravity measurements in Cyprus. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 4, 473-480.


b Bullard, E. Thermal conductivity of rocks (report of a committee). Advmt. Sci., Lond 1939-40, 330-331.


c Bullard, E. Submarine geology. Sci. Prog., Lond 134, 237-248.


d Bullard, E. Temperatures within the earth. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 4, 534-536.


e Bullard, E. Heat flow in South Africa. Proc. R. Soc. A, 173, 474-502.


1940 a Bullard, E., Gaskell, T.F., Harland, W.B. & Kerr-Grant, c. Seismic investigations on the Palaeozoic floor of east England. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 239 29-94.


b Browne, B.C. & Bullard, E. Comparison of the acceleration due to gravity at the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington and the Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 175, 110-117.


c Bullard, E. Geophysical study of submarine geology. Nature, Lond 145, 764-766.


d Bullard, E. Submarine canyons. Nature, Lond 146, 432.


e Bullard, E. The geophysical study of submarine geology. Proc. R. Instn. Gt. Br. 31, 139-147


1941 a Bullard, E. The continental shelf. Nature, Lond 148, 672-673.


b Bullard, E. & Gaskell, T.F. Submarine seismic investigations. Proc. R. Soc. A, 177, 476-499.


1942 Bullard, E. Radioactive heat generation in rocks. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 5, 41-47.


1943 Bullard, E. The earth's gravitational field. Endeavour 2, 105-108.


1944 Bullard, E. Geological time. Mem. Proc. Manchr. lit. phil. Soc. 86, 55-82.


1945 a Bullard, E. (and others) Science at your service. London: Allen & Unwin.


b Bullard, E. Thermal history of the earth. Nature, London 156, 35, 1945.


1946 a Bullard, E. The protection of ships from magnetic mines. Proc. R. Instn. Gt. Br. 33, 554-566.


b Bullard, E. Remarks on a paper by P. Evans & W. Crompton "Geological factors in gravity interpretation illustrated by evidence from India and Burma". Q. Jl. geol. Soc. Lond 102, 246-247.


1947 a Bullard, E. & Slichter, L.B. Frenkel's views on the origin of terrestrial magnetism. Nature, Lond 160, 197.


b Bullard, E. The time necessary for a bore-hole to attain temperature equilibrium. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 5, 127-130.


c Bullard, E. On magnetic work in Africa. Researches Dep. terr. Magn. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 8, 20-21.


d Bullard, E. Sir Gerald Lenox Conyngham. Bull. geod. 1-3.


e Bullard, E. Articles on "Earth", "Geophysics" and "Seismographs" in Chamber's Encyclopaedia.


1948 a Bullard, E. The figure of the earth. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 5, 186-192.


b Bullard, E. Article on "Speed" in the Children's Encyclopaedia.


c Bullard, E. & Cooper, R.I.B. Determination of the masses necessary to produce a given gravitational field.


Proc. R. Soc. A, 194, 332-347.


d Bullard, E. The secular change in the earth's magnetic field. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 5, 248-257.


1949 a Bullard, E. The magnetic field within the earth. Proc. R. Soc. A, 197, 433-453.


b Bullard, E. & Stanley, J.P. The age of the earth. Suom. geod. Lait. Julk. No. 36, 33-40.


c Bullard, E. Terrestrial magnetism. Physics Today 2, 6-13.


d Bullard, E. Electromagnetic induction in a rotating sphere. Proc. R. Soc. A, 199, 413-443.


1950 a Bullard, E. The origin of the earth's magnetic field (The Halley Lecture). Observatory 70, 139-143.


b Bullard, E., Freedman, C., Gellman, H. & Nixon, J.


The westward drift of the earth's magnetic field.


Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 243, 67-92.


c Bullard, E. The transfer of heat from the core of the earth. Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 6, 36-41.


d Bullard, E. Sections on "gravity", "constants connected with the earth" and "abundances of the elements" in Kaye, G.W.C. & Laby, T.H. Tables of physical constants, 10th ed. London: Longmans.


1951 e Bullard, E. & Niblett, E.R. Terrestrial heat flow in England. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. geophys. Suppl. 6, 222-238.


1952 a Bullard, E. Remarks on deformation of the earth's crust.


Trans. Am. geophys. Un. 32, 520.


b Bullard, E. Fluid motion of the earth's interior as inferred from geomagnetism. Trans. Am. geophys. Un. 32, 538.


c Bullard, E. The origin of the earth's magnetic field.


Geologie Mijnb. 14, 355-359. (Esperanto translation in Science Review 4a, 22-26).


d Bullard, E. Wärmefluss aus der Erdkruste. In Landolt-Börnstein Zahlenwerte und Functionen (Astronomie & Geophysik) 3, 385-386.


e Bullard, E. On self-exciting processes in magneto-hydrodynamics.J. Phys. Earth 1, 65.


f Utilisation of solar energy (report of a committee).


Research 5, 522-529.


g Bullard, E. Heat flow through the floor of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Nature, Lond 170, 200.


h Bullard, E. British standard of radioactive iodine (131I). Nature, Lond 170, 916-917.


1953 a Bullard, E. Magnetic survey from the air. Aerial Surv. Rev. No. 5,2.


b Bullard, E. Is the earth's dipole moment increasing?


J. geophys. Res. 58, 277-278.


c Bullard, E.C. Newton's Office the, N.P.L. News June 1953.


1954 a Bullard, E. Introduction to a discussion on "The floor of the Atlantic Ocean". Proc. R. Soc. A, 287-289.


b Bullard, E. A comparison of oceans and continents.


Proc. R. Soc. A, 222, 403-407.


c Bullard, E. The flow of heat through the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. Proc. R. Soc. A, 222, 408-429.


d Bullard, E. Heat flow through the floor of the ocean.


Deep Sea Res. 1, 65-66.


e Bullard, E. & Gellman, H. Homogenous dynamos and terrestrial magnetism. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 247, 213-278.


f Bullard, E. Science and management. The Manager 22, 89-91 and 112.


g Bullard, E. The interior of the earth. In The Solar System (ed. G.P. Kuiper) vol. 2. The earth as a planet. 57-137. Chicago: University Press.


1955 a Bullard, E. The magnetic field of sunspots. In Vistas in astronomy. (ed. A. Beer).


b Bullard, E. The stability of a homopolar dynamo. Proc. Camb. phil. Soc. 51, 744-760.


c Bullard, E. Definition of the second of time. Nature, Lond 176, 282.


d Bullard, E. Introduction to a discussion on "Movements in the earth's core and electrical conductivity".


Annls. Géophys. 11, 49-52


e Bullard, E. Remarks on a paper by S.K. Runcorn "The earth's core". Trans. Am. geophys. Un. 36, 491.


f Bullard, E. Introduction to a discussion on "Magneto-hydrodynamics". Proc. R. Soc. A, 233, 289.


1956 a Bullard, E., Maxwell, A.E. & Revelle, R. Heat flow through the deep sea floor. Adv. Geophys. 3, 153-181.


b Astin, A.V., Bullard, E. & Lewis, W.B. International comparisons of radioactive standards. Nature, Lond 177, 12-13.


c Bullard, E. The unit of time. Observatory 76, 238-239.


d Bullard, E. Engineering and scientific applications of computers. Proc. Intn. elect. Engrs. 103, Pt. 3 (suppl. 1), 10-11.


e Bullard, E. Edmond Halley: the first geophysicist. Nature, Lond 178, 891-892.


f Bullard, E. Edmond Halley (1656-1742). Endeavour 15, 189-199.


g Bullard, E. Catalogue of exhibition to celebrate the tercentenary of Edmond Halley. London: Royal Society.


h Bullard, E. The floor of the ocean. Mem. Proc. Manchr. lit. phil. Soc. 97, 1-12.


i Bullard, E. Sections on "Gravity", "Physical constants of the earth" and "Abundances of the elements" in Tables of physical and chemical constants by Kaye, G.W.C. & Laby, T.H., 11th ed. London: Longmans.


j Bullard, E. Welcoming luncheon address. In Proc. world symposium on applied solar energy 41-42. Menlo Park: Stanford Research Institute.


1957 a Bullard, E. Gerald Ponsonby Lenox-Conyngham. Biogr. Mem. Fellows R. Soc. 3, 129-140.


b Bullard, E. & Ronan, C.A. The exhibition to commemorate Edmond Halley 1656-1742. Notes Rec. R. Soc. Lond 12, 166-167.


c Bullard, E. The density within the earth. In Gedenkboek F.A. Vening Meinesz (ed. I.A. van Weelden). Verh. geol.-mijnb. Genoot. Ned. (geol. Ser). 18, 23-41.


1958 a Bullard E. The secular variation of the earth's magnetic field (Chree lecture). Yb. phys. Soc. for 1958, 47-60.


b Allan, D.W. & Bullard, E. Distortion of a toroidal field by convection. Rev. mod. Phys. 30, 1087-1088.


c Bullard, E.C. The inside of the earth. In Scientific background (ed. A.N. Jaffares). London: Pitman.


1959 a Bullard, E. Geophysics: substantial additions to knowledge. New Scient. 5,6,59.


1960 a Bullard, E. Proiskhozdenii magnitnogo polya zemli. Priroda, Mosk. No. 12, 80-85.


b Bullard, E. The automatic reduction of geophysical data. Geophys. J. 3, 237-243.


c Allan, D.W. & Bullard, E. Origin of the secular variation (abstract only) Bull. Geomagn. Aeron. No. 16, 349.


d Measurement of temperature gradient in the earth. In Methods and techniques in geophysics (ed. S.K. Runcorn). London: Interscience.


e Presentation of Arthur L. Day medal to Edward C. Bullard (with his reply). Proc. geol. Soc. Am. (for 1959) 91-92.


f Bullard, E. Opening remarks to a discussion on "Space research". J. Br. Instn. Radio Engrs.


1961 a Bullard, E. & Day, A. The flow of heat through the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. J. 4, 282-292.


b Bullard, E. Forces and processes at work in ocean basins. In Oceanography. New York: Publs. Am. Ass. Advmt. Sci. No. 67, 39-50.


c Bullard, E. & Mason, R.G. The magnetic field astern of a ship. Deep Sea Res. 8, 20-27.


d Bullard, E. The Mohole. Endeavour 20, 188-196 (also in French, German, Spanish & Italian editions and reprinted in Norwegian in Teknisk Ukeblad 1137-1144).


e Bullard, E. & Griggs, D.T. The nature of the Mohorovicic discontinuity. Geophys. J. 6, 118-123.


f Bullard, E. Earth, radioactivity in. In Encyclopaedic dictionary of physics (ed. J. Thewlis) 2, 593-594.


Oxford: Pergamon Press. Geomagnetism, origins of. ibid 3, 456-458. Ocean floor, heat flow through. ibid 5, 180-181.


1962 a Bullard, E. The deeper structure of the ocean floor. Proc. R. Soc. A, 265, 386-395.


b Bullard, E., Hill, M.N. & Mason, C.S. Chart of the total force of the earth's magnetic field for the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean. Geomagnetica 186-191. Lisboa: Servico Meteorológico Nacional.


c Bullard, E. Richard Montgomery Field. Proc. geol. Soc. No. 1602, 154-155.


d Bullard, E., Oglebay, F., Munk, W.H. & Miller, G.


User's guide to BOMM, a system of programs for the analysis of time series, preliminary version.


La Jolla: University of California. (see also 1964e & 1966j)


1963 a Bullard, E. & Munk, W.H. Patching the long-wave spectrum across the tides. J. geophys. Res. 68, 3627-3634.


b Bullard, E. & Mason, R.G. The magnetic field over the oceans. In The Sea (ed. M.N. Hill) 3, 175-217. New York Interscience


c Bullard, E. The flow of heat through the floor of the ocean. In The Sea (ed. M.N. Hill) 3, 218-232. New York: Interscience.


d Bullard, E. Contribution No 18. In Investigations of the earth's crust. Monogr. int. Un. Geod. Geophys. No. 22,7.


e Bullard, E. Charles Galton Darwin. Q. J1. R. àstr. Soc. 4, 316-317.


1964 a Bullard, E. The language of machines. Endeavour 23, 160-164. (also published in French, German, Italian & Spanish). see 1965f.


b Bullard, E. Continental drift. Q. Jl. geol. Soc. Lond 120, 1-34.


c Bullard, E., Mason, C.S. & Mudie, J.D. Curious behavior of a proton magnetometer. Proc. Camb. phil. Soc. 60, 287-293.


d Bullard, E. The flow of heat through the earth. ICSU Rev. World Sci. 6, 78-83.


e Bullard, E., Oglebay, F.E., Munk, W.H. & Miller, G.R. A user's guide to BOMM. La Jolla: University of California. (see also 1962d & 1966j).


1965 a Bullard, E., Everett, J.E. & Smith, A.G. The fit of the continents around the Atlantic. Phil. Trans. A., 258, 41-51.


b Bullard, E. Concluding remarks to a discussion on "Continental Drift". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 258 472-476.


c Bullard, E. Fit of the continents around the Atlantic (abstract only). Science, N.Y. 148,664.


d Bullard, E. A.B. Wood J.R. Naval Scient. Service 20,7.


e Bullard, E. Historical introduction to terrestrial heat flow. In Terrestrial heat flow (ed. W.H.K. Lee). Geophys. Monogr. No. 8, 1-6.


f Bullard, E. The language of machines. London: IBM, (A revision of 1964a).


g Bullard, E. I1 Lingioggio delle macchine. La Scuola in Azione. No. 3, 21-38. (Translation of 1964a).


h Bullard, E. What makes a good research establishment? In The organisation of research establishments (ed. J. Cockroft). Cambridge: University Press. (Spanish translation in Inst. interam. Ciencias Agricolas Montevideo 1969).


1966 a Bullard, E. Effect of the oceans on geomagnetic variations. Geophys. J. 10, 553.


b Allan, D.W. & Bullard, E. The secular variation of the earth's magnetic field. Proc. Camb. phil. Soc. 62, 783-809.


c Bullard, E. The detection of underground explosions. Scient. Am. 215, July, 19-29 (also reproduced in Science, conflict and society and in Arms Control San Francisco: Freeman 1969).


1966 d Bullard, E. Concluding remarks to a discussion on recent advances in the technique of seismic recording and analysis. Proc. R. Soc. A, 290, 472-476.


e Bullard, E. Solar and terrestrial dynamos. In Atti del convegno sui campo magnetici solari. 278-283 (comitato nazionale per le manifestazioni celebrative del IV centenario della nascita di Galileo. Firenze: G. Barbera.


f Banks, R.J. & Bullard, E. The annual and 27 day magnetic variations. Earth planet. Sci. Lett. 1, 118-120.


g Bullard, E. Sections on "Mechanical and physical properties of the earth", "Geological time scale" and "Abundances of the elements" in Tables of physical and chemical constants by G.W.C. Kaye & T.H. Laby. London: Longmans.


h Bullard, E. Bullard, Sir Edward (Crisp). In McGraw-Hill modern men of science. New York: McGraw-Hill.


i Bullard, E. Science, politics and the test ban. Science J. 2, 3.


j Bullard, E., Oglebay, F.E., Munk, W.H. & Miller, G.R.


A user's guide to BOMM (2nd ed.). La Jolla: University of California (see 1962d & 1964e).


1967 a Bullard, E. Maurice Neville Hill 1919-1966. Biogr. Mem. Fellows R. Soc. 13, 193-203.


b Bullard, E. The removal of trend from magnetic surveys. Earth, planet. Sci. Lett. 2, 293-300.


c Bullard, E. Keynote address, Proceedings of IBM scientific computing symposium on environmental sciences, 1-2.


d Bullard, E. Chairman's remarks to session on statistical methods. Proceedings of IBM scientific computing symposium on environmental sciences 113-114.


e Bullard, E. Electromagnetic induction in the earth. Q. Jl. R. astr. Soc. 8, 143-160.


f Bullard, E. Detecting underground explosions. Survival 9, 38-46.


g Bullard, E., Booker, J. & Gasty, R.L. Paleomagnetism and age of rocks from Easter Island and Juan Fernandez, Geophys, J. 12, 469-471.


1968 a Bullard, E. Reversals of the earth's magnetic field (the Bakerian Lecture for 1967). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 263, 481-524 (reprinted in Selected lectures of the Royal Society Vol. 3, 1970).


b Bullard, E. Korennyye porody pod okeani. In Osnovnye problemy okeanologii. Moskva: Nauk. (translated from English, see 1969d).


c Bullard, E. Closing review. In The history of the earth's crust (ed. R.A. Phinney). 231-235.


Princeton: University Press.


1969 a Bullard, E. Science and the moon race. New Scient. 41, 14.


b Bullard, E. The origin of the oceans. Scient. Am. 221, Sept., 66-75. (also reproduced as No. 800 Scient. Am. Offprints and in the Scient. Am. books The Ocean and Continents Adrift).


c Bullard, E. Obituary notice: Benjamin Chapman Browne.


Q. Jl. R. Astr. Soc. 10, 336-341.


d Bullard, E. The rocks beneath the oceans. Morning review lectures of the second international oceanographic congress (Moscow 1966) 189-198.


Paris: UNESCO (also published in Russian, see 1968b).


1970 a Bullard, E. & Parker, R.L. Electromagnetic induction in the oceans. In The Sea (ed. A. Maxwell) 4, Pt. 1, 695-730. New York: Wiley.


b Bullard, E. Maurice Neville Hill, 1919-1966. In The Sea (ed. A.E. Maxwell) 4,Pt. 1, p vii. New York: Interscience.


1971 a Bullard, E. & Gubbins, D. Geomagnetic dynamos in a stable core. Nature, Lond 232, 548-549.


b Bullard, E. The earth's magnetic field and its origin.


In Understanding the earth (ed. I.G. Gass et al) 71-79 Sussex: Open University Press (revised for 2nd ed. 1972).


c Bullard, E. Dynamo theory. In World magnetic survey. (ed. A.J. Zmuda). Bull intn. Ass. Geomag. Aeron. No. 28, 112-117.


d Bullard, E. Britannia ruled the waves: a history of British oceanography. Oceans 4,6-15.


e Bullard, E. Introductory remarks to a discussion on the petrology of igneous and metamorphic rocks from the ocean floor. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 268,383.


f Bullard, E., Cann, J.R. & Matthews, D.H. (editors). A discussion on the petrology of igneous & metamorphic rocks from the ocean floor. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 268, 381-745.


g Bullard, E. & McKenzie, D.P. Remarks on uncertainties in poles of rotation in continental fitting. Earth planet. Sci. Lett. 11, 263-264


h Bullard, E. Proiskhozhdenie Okeanov. In Okean 29-43, Moskova: Izdaletstva Mir ( a translation of 1969b).


i Bullard, E. Convocation address at Memorial University, Newfoundland M.U.N. Gazette 4,6.


j Bullard, E. Preface to The great ocean business by B. Horsfield & P.B. Stone. London: Hodder & Stoughton.


k Bullard, E. The earth cores. Nature, Lond 234,438.


1972 a Bullard, E. & Gubbins, D. The oscillating disc dynamo and geomagnetism. In Flow and fracture of rocks (ed. H.C. Heard et al.) Geophys. Monogr. 16, 325-328.


b Bullard, E. Geomagnetic dynamos. In The nature of the solid earth (ed. E.C. Robertson) 232-244. New York: McGraw Hill.


1973 a Bullard, E. Sections on "Physical properties of sea water", "The geological time scale", "Abundances of the elements" and "Composition of the earth's atmosphere" in Tables of physical and chemical constants by G.W.C. Kaye & T.H. Laby. 14th ed. London: Longmans.


b Bullard, E. Basic theories. In Geothermal energy, review of research and development (ed. H.C.H. Armstead) 19-29. Paris: UNESCO.


1973 c Bullard, Mr E.S. HISCOCKS CBE NPL News No 283 21 Nov 1973


1974 a Bullard, E. Patrick Blackett, an appreciation. Nature, Lond 250, 370.


b Bullard, E. Rutherford's Cavendish. Nature, Lond 250, 770-772.


c Bullard, E. Minerals from the deep sea. Endeavour 33, 80-85.


d G & G Annual Report


1975 a Bullard, E. The effect of World War II on the development of knowledge in the physical sciences. Proc. R. Soc. A, 342, 519-536.


b Bullard, E. The emergence of plate tectonics: a personal view. Annual Rev. earth planet, Sci. 3, 1-30.


c Bullard, E. Plate tectonics and oil accumulation. In Canada's continental margins and offshore petroleum exploration (ed. C. J. Yorath et al.). Canad. Soc. Petrol. Geol. Mem. No. 4, 1-7.


d Bullard, E. William Maurice Ewing. Biogr. Mem. Fellows R. Soc. 21, 269-311.


e. Bullard, E. Geomagnetic field models. (opening talk to a discussion on the revision of the IGRF) Trans. Am. geophys. Un. 56, 538-540.


f Bullard, E. Overview of plate tectonics. In Petroleum and global tectonics (ed. A. G. Fischer and S. Judson) 5-19.


Princeton: University Press.


g Bullard, E. Continental shelves: their nature and history.


Oceanus 19, 3-7.


1976 a Exploration of the sea. In Oceans: Our Continuing Frontier (edit. H.W. Menard & J.L. Scheiber). Del Mar: Publishers Inc.


b A new world picture. In Oceans: Our Continuing Frontier (edit. H.W. Menard & J.L. Scheiber). Del Mar: Publishers Inc.


1977 a Bullard, E.C. & Gubbins, D. Generation of magnetic fields by fluid motions of global scale. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dynamics 8, 43-56.


b Bullard, E. Maurice Ewing. In Island Arcs, Deep Sea Trenches, and Back Arc Basins iii-iv. Washington: Am. Geophys. Un.


c Bullard, E. et al. An analysis of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle with emphasis on high level waste management. (Project Manager T. English). JPL Publication 77-59, 2 vols.


1977 d Bullard E. et al. An analysis of the technical status of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel management systems. JPL Publications 77-69.


1978 a Munk, W.H. Dedication (written by ECB). In Topics in Non-Linear Dynamics. A tribute to Sir Edward Bullard. (edit. S. Jorna) v-viii. American Institute of Physics. Conference Proceedings No.46


b Bullard, E. The Disk dynamo. In Topics in Non-Linear Dynamics. A tribute to Sir Edward Bullard. (edit. S. Jorna) 373-378 American Institute of Physics. Conference Proceedings No.46.


1978 ? Math. Intelligence


1980 Bullard, E. William Maurice Ewing 1906-1974. A biographical Memoir. Biographical Memoirs 51, U.S.National Acad. Sci.


1981 Malin, S.R.C. & Bullard, E. The direction of the earth's magnetic field at London 1570-1975. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (Lond). 299, 357-423.


Part 2. Newspaper articles (an incomplete list)


1950 a Standards of precise measurement. Times review of the progress of science. April.


b How old is the earth? The Listener 635-636 (also in Arabic in The Arabic Listener 12, 8-9).


1951 Inside the earth. Times review of the progress of science. Aug.


1955 a The N.P.L. grows. Financial Times July 11.


b Power from the sun. The Observer Nov. 13.


1956 a Energy from the sun. London Calling No. 846,8.


b Obituary of Sir Gerald Lenox-Conyngham. The Times Oct. 29.


1960 Tasks for the future. Discovery (Granada T.V & Methuen, Summary in T.V. Times, northern edition Mar. 18).


1968 Obituary notice Mr. B.C. Browne. The Times Aug. 21.


1969 The astonishing Charles Babbage. The Listener 81, 641-642.


1971 , BEM, Assn. Cambridge University, Assistant Management No 54, August pp1-2.


1972 H.J.J. Broddich. The Times June 1, 1972, P16.


Part 3. Book reviews (an incomplete list)


1955 Review of Gesammelte Arbeiten by R. Eötvos in Nature, Lond 176, 228.


1955 Review of Isotope geology by K. Rankama in Endeavour 14, 107.


1957 Review of Seismology, historical survey and catalogue in Discovery.


1957 Review of Beitrage zur Geschichte der Erkenntnis des Erdmagnetismus by H. Balmer in Endeavour 16, 174.


1957 Review of Scientific uses of earth satellites by J.A. van Allen.


1957 Review of Physics and Chemistry of the earth (ed. L.H. Ahrens et al.) in Nature, Lond 179-986


1958 Review of Annals of the International Geophysical Year Vols. 3,4, & 5 in Endeavour 17, 163-164.


1958 Review of The earth and its gravity field by W.A. Heiskanen & F.A. Vening Meinesz in Nature, Lond 182, 1580-1581.


1958 Review of HandRuch der Physik Vols. 47 & 48 in Nature, Lond 182, 1582.


1960 Review of Physics of the earth's interior by B. Gutenberg in Phil. Mag. Ser. 8, 5, 421-422.


1960 Review of Physics and chemistry of the earth (ed. L.H. Ahrens et al.) Vol. 3 in Geophys. J. 3, 284-285.


1960 Review of The Geoffrey Taylor Papers Vol. 2. in New Scient. July 14, p. 164.


1961 Review of Rotation of the earth by W.H. Munk & G.J.F. Macdonald in Geol. Maq. 98, 352 and in Phil. Maq. Ser. 8,7, 1255.


1961 Review of Lead isotopes in geology by R.D. Russell & R.M. Farquhar in Geol. Maq. 98, 174.


1962 Review of A hole in the bottom of the sea by W. Bascom in Endeavour 21, 196.


1962 Review of Applied geophysics in the USSR (ed. N. Rost) in Geol. Mag. 99, 576


1963 Review of Continental drift (ed. S.K. Runcorn) in Geophys. J. 8, 147.


1964 Review of Nutation and forced motion of the earth's pole by Yl. P. Fedorov in Phil Mag. Ser 8,9, 177.


1966 Review of Soviet advances in nuclear geophysics (ed. F.A. Alekseev) in Geol. Mag. 103, 181.


1967 Review of Edmond Halley by A. Armitage in Endeavour 26,111.


1967 Review of The testban treaty by H.J. McBride in Survival 9.


1968 Review of Sydney Chapman - eighty - from his friends (ed. S. Akasofu et al.) and of Physics of geomagnetic phenomena (ed. S. Matsushita & W.H. Campbell) in Nature, Lond 220, 1361-1362.


Revision of The earth's mantle (ed. T. Gaskell) in Endeavour 27, 102-103.


1969 Review of Oceans by K.K. Turekian in Endeavour 28, 101-102.


1970 Review of Einführung in die Geophysik by H. Israel in Endeavour 29, 50-51.


1970 Review of Physics of the earth by T.F. Gaskell in Endeavour 29, 158.


1972 Review of Computers and their roll in the physical sciences, (ed. S. Fernbach & A.H. Taub) in Endeavour 31, 49.


1972 Review of Rutherford: recollections of the Cambridge davs by M. Oliphant in Endeavour 31, 154.


1973 Review of Topics in geophysics by P.J. Smith in Nature, Lond 246, 432.


1973 Review of Medieval chronicles and the rotation of the earth by R.R. Newton in Endeavour 32, 150.


1973 Review of The collected works of Leo Szilard (ed. B. Feld & G. Szilard) in Endeavour 32, 151.


1973 Review of Geomagnetism in marine geology by V. Vacquier in Nature, Lond 242, 64.


List of reviews for 1974 & 1975 not


1974 Review of Earth's rotation & climate by A A.S.Monin S. Fluid Mich 66,623


1975 Review of A History of Oceanography : the edge of an unfamiliar world by Evean Schlcc


1976 Review of Lord in Nature, Lond 259, 161.


Revision of P.M.S. in Nature 261, 352.


1978 Review of Meditations of a in Nature Lord 272, 775-776.


1978 Review of Mort Sovet War by R.V. Jones in Nature Lond Vol 274 p. 191


1978 Review of From in the San Diego Union July 23, 1978.


1979 Review of Institution of 1936 to 1976 by E. in Nature Lond, 278, 793.


1979 Review of : Blowing in the Wild : The 1954-60 by R.A. in Nature Lond 282, 158 - 159.


1979 Review of : Lev Letters & Correspondence. Ed Weart & Nature Lond 278, 285-286

  • Geophysics
Administrative / biographical background:

Bullard was born in 1907 into a comfortable family of Norwich brewers who provided him with relative affluence and a dash of eccentricity. He was educated at Repton and Clare College, Cambridge; his first graduate research was at the Cavendish Laboratory when its Director, from whom he says he learned much, was Rutherford. Bullard himself worked under the direction of P.M.S. (later Lord) Blackett and in collaboration with H.S.W. (later Sir Harrie) Massey, on electron scattering in gases. In 1931, partly because of the economic depression, he accepted a post under Sir Gerald Lenox-Conyngham at the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics in Cambridge; here he worked with great energy and success on a variety of projects: geophysical instrument design and development, gravity determination in Britain and Africa, explosion seismology including the first British expeditions to study the Atlantic seafloor, and heat-flow in South African bore-holes.


During the Second World War Bullard was seconded to the Admiralty, again working on various tasks, including anti-mine protection, operational research and intelligence; at the end of the War he was Assistant Director, Naval Operational Research. Elected to the Fellowship of the Royal Society in 1941 he was a member of the Society's Post-War Needs in Geophysics Committee and instrumental in organising the allocation of surplus equipment and apparatus to universities at the end of hostilities. Returning to Cambridge, he put much effort into re-establishing the Department and its several lines of research, including gravity measurements, heat-flow and deep sea seismic refraction.


In 1947 he accepted a post as Professor of Physics at Toronto, a sudden and many felt an unwise decision which Bullard himself attributed to frustration at the lack of administrative and research facilities at Cambridge. While there, but on a summer vacation visit to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, he did some of his most important work on the design of equipment for the measurement of heat-flow at sea (in collaboration with A.E. Maxwell), and in 1950 returned to Britain as Director of the National Physical Laboratory. His tenure of this essentially 'establishment' post, which brought him a knighthood in 1953, was remarkable in the amount of research he continued to pursue undistracted - or minimally distracted - by administrative and official duties. He continued to work on marine heat-flow, building apparatus and taking part in sea-going expeditions, and also developed his dynamo theory of terrestrial magnetism.


In 1956 Bullard returned to Cambridge and to the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics as Assistant Director of Research (Reader in Geophysics 1960, Professor 1964). Once again, his research interests proliferated, in collaboration with many gifted students (the 'Cambridge Mariners') to include continental drift and plate tectonics as well as continuing work in seismology and geomagnetism, and a very practical interest in the development of computer programs for processing large amounts of observational data.


During this period too, Bullard was increasingly in demand as consultant and adviser to Government Departments (notably the Admiralty, Foreign Office, Ministries of Defence, Science and Supply), to professional and learned societies such as the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, and to industrial firms principally Shell and IBM UK of which he was a director for ten years. He was a founder member of the Natural Environment Research Council, played a part in attempts to negotiate a test-ban treaty and was joint chairman of the Anglo-American Ballistic Missiles Committee.


Bullard had always enjoyed his contacts with America where he had many friends. He paid regular visits to various research institutions and was frequently offered tempting appointments. Most of all, he admired the personnel and facilities at Scripps; he accepted from 1963 a Visiting Professorship to spend three months there each year, and on his retirement from Cambridge in 1974 he and his second wife became American residents living at La Jolla. He continued research in geomagnetism and plate tectonics and took part in Scripps expeditions as well as in its teaching and lecturing programmes; and he added a last topic of interest - energy sources and nuclear waste disposal - in his capacity as consultant to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Caltech. Despite failing health he remained occupied in writing and research until his death in April 1980.


Bullard was held in almost universal esteem and affection, which transpires throughout the collection, whether in the flood of requests to visit, lecture, or advise on technical matters, the many offers of influential posts in Britain and America, the trust placed in him as adviser, referee and consultant at every level from national academies and government ministries to junior employees and sixth-formers, or the more 'objective' criteria of 'Course and Professor Evaluation' (at Scripps) and BBC audience research panel reports. One can see why. Bullard - known and addressed by all as 'Teddy' - seems to have grown younger and less formal as his age and honours increased. Even without his voice and living presence, his personality emerges unmistakably in all he wrote: serious without pomposity, forthright without animosity, loyal without prejudice. He rarely lost contact with old friends and colleagues and often intervened quietly to help them or their families left unprovided for by death or inadequate pensions (a topic on which he felt strongly). He appears never to have written a routine letter; he may (as he often claimed) have never quite mastered English spelling conventions, but his thought and his wit are immediately accessible.

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