Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin OM FRS (b.1910)
This record is held by Oxford University: Bodleian Library, Special Collections
|Title:||Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin OM FRS (b.1910)|
SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL A.1-A.222
A.1-A.53 Autobiographical and biographical
A.54-A.155 Career, honours and awards
A.156-A.181 Family and personal
A.182-A.220 Miscellaneous biographical items
A.221, A.222 Press cuttings
SECTION B RESEARCH B.1-B.991
B.1-B.19 Early work
B.50-B.53 Toad poisons
B.54-B.61 Sex hormones
B.62-B.81 Theory, apparatus, techniques
B.289, B.290 Sterols
B.291-B.295 Tobacco viruses
B.337, B.338 Fatty acids
B.501, B.502 Lactoglobulin
B.506-B.828 Vitamin B12
B.829-B.847 Nitroso compounds
B.852, B.853 Lumisterol
B.877-B.896 Piloty compounds
B.897, B.898 Sporidesmin
B.899-B.928 Cephalosporin C
B.930, B.931 Suprasterol II
B.983-B.991 Large format
SECTION C OXFORD UNIVERSITY C.1-C.182
C.1-C.3 Sub-faculty of Chemistry
C.24-C.56 Hodgkin's research group
C.57-C.66 Wolfson Research Professorship of the Royal Society
C.67-C.108 Funding and administration of research
C.109-C.143 Equipment and supplies
C.173-C.178 Somerville College
SECTION D PUBLICATIONS, LECTURES AND BROADCASTS D.1-D.200
D.199, D.200 Addendum
SECTION E SOCIETIES AND ORGANISATIONS E.1-E.193
SECTION F VISITS AND CONFERENCES F.1-F.179
SECTION G PEACE AND HUMANITARIAN INTERESTS G.1-G.204
G.1-G.156 Organisations and topics
G.157-G.165 Visits and conferences
G.166-G.171 Lectures and publications
SECTION H CORRESPONDENCE H.1-H.331
H.1-H.262 General scientific correspondence
H.263-H.306 Shorter scientific correspondence
H.307-H.331 References and recommendations
SECTION J NON-PRINT MATERIAL J.1-J.83
J.31-J.79 Photographic slides
J.80-J.82 Sound recordings
Explanatory notes, information and cross-references are appended where appropriate to the separate sections, subsections and individual entries in the body of the catalogue. The following paragraphs are intended only to draw attention to items of particular interest.
Section A (Biographical) presents records of Hodgkin's career, honours and awards, 1928-90, including documentation of the award of the Nobel Prize and subsequent meetings of Nobel prizewinners. There are also family and personal correspondence, though papers relating to Hodgkin's parents and husband were retained in family hands, drafts of an unfinished autobiography, shorter autobiographical writings, articles and interviews, and many requests for biographical information for which Hodgkin often prepared careful and detailed replies.
Section B (Research) is by far the largest in the collection and comprises very extensive documentation of Hodgkin's research in x-ray crystallography including the major topics of insulin, penicillin and vitamin B12. It covers a period of sixty years from about 1928 to 1988. Most of the material was found in Hodgkin's box folders which were labelled by topic. The contents of these boxes included correspondence, drafts for reports and publications, notebooks, notes and data. Arrangement is chronological by topic. J.D. Bernal, with whom Hodgkin worked in Cambridge 1932-34, and very many of her later collaborators including C.W. Bunn (penicillin) and E.L. Smith (vitamin B12) are represented in the papers by correspondence, drafts, notes and data.
Section C (Oxford University) provides useful documentation of Hodgkin's university teaching in the 1940s and 1950s, her research group and tenure of the Wolfson Research Professorship of the Royal Society, 1960-77, the funding and administration of her research (Rockefeller Foundation, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Nuffield Foundation), and the provision of equipment and supplies including the use of computer facilities at other institutions in the UK and USA and their development at Oxford.
Section D (Publications, lectures and broadcasts) presents chronological sequences of material relating to Hodgkin's scientific publications, invitation and public lectures and broadcasts, and editorial correspondence arranged alphabetically by publisher or journal title. There are substantial assemblages of material relating to her Royal Society memoirs of J.D. Bernal and Kathleen Lonsdale. Not all Hodgkin's scientific publications are documented in this section. There are drafts for many scientific papers with the related research material in Section B, and Hodgkin's Nobel Lecture is to be found in Section A with other documentation of the Nobel Prize. Drafts for a number of non-scientific publications and lectures are to be found in Section G.
Section E (Societies and organisations) brings together documentation of Hodgkin's involvement with 16 British and international societies and organisations including Bristol University, the British Association for the Advancement of Science, the Institute of Physics, especially its X-ray Analysis Group established 1943, the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) and the Royal Society. Her major commitments to Bristol University, where she was Chancellor for nearly twenty years, and to the International Union, which she served as President and whose congresses she attended 1948-93, are particularly well documented. In respect of Bristol there is a substantial sequence of general papers and correspondence 1971-89, correspondence with Vice Chancellors A.W. Merrison and J.F.C. Kingman, Hodgkin's speeches at degree congregations, and material relating to the Department of Architecture closed by the University in 1984 despite Hodgkin's support for its efforts to remain open. Although there is some record of all the IUCr congresses Hodgkin attended from 1948, the bulk of the surviving material dates from Hodgkin's term as President, 1972-75, and includes general papers and correspondence and executive committee papers. The IUCr material reflects Hodgkin's interest in bringing Chinese scientists into the international crystallographic community. There is also material relating to scientific relations with China amongst the Royal Society papers.
Section F (Visits and conferences) presents a chronological sequence of material relating to Hodgkin's scientific visits and conferences, 1936-93, though the great bulk of the material is from the period after the award of the Nobel Prize in 1964. There is evidence of her interest in maintaining scientific contacts with the USSR and China during the Cold War, the first of many visits taking place in 1953 and 1959 respectively, and of visa difficulties in respect of visiting the USA during the same period. She also made frequent visits to Eastern Europe outside the USSR. India was another locus of valued scientific contacts and she made a number of extended visits, for example in 1974, 1978 and 1979. Not all Hodgkin's extensive travel is documented in this section. Records of her attendance at International Union of Crystallography congresses are to be found in Section E with other IUCr material. Visits which bear on Hodgkin's peace and humanitarian interests including Pugwash meetings and her visits to Vietnam are to be found in Section G. Some visits of particular biographical significance (including the award of the Nobel Prize and subsequent Nobel meetings) are to be found in Section A.
Section G (Peace and humanitarian interests) brings together documentation of the wide range of peace and humanitarian causes with which Hodgkin was involved. Her major commitments to the Medical Aid Committee for Vietnam and the Pugwash movement are particularly well documented. The activities of the Medical Aid Committee are recorded in general correspondence and papers, minutes and agenda and printed material; however the surviving material relating to Hodgkin's visits to Vietnam in 1971 and 1974 is disappointing in extent. The bulk of the Pugwash material dates from Hodgkin's Presidency, 1976-88, and includes general correspondence and papers, committee papers, conference, symposia and workshop papers, Hodgkin's addresses, and printed material. Of especial interest is the documentation of the Warsaw conference of 1982, which followed the imposition of martial law in Poland. Other organisations and topics represented in the section include the J.D. Bernal Peace Library, Palestine, Russian dissidents and Scientists Against Nuclear Arms (SANA). The section also presents documentation of conferences attended by Hodgkin on peace and humanitarian issues, a number of her lectures and publications on these topics, and an extended chronological sequence of shorter correspondence with individuals and organisations, 1952-91.
Section H (Correspondence) presents an alphabetical sequence of Hodgkin's scientific correspondents including distinguished mentors and contemporaries such as J.D. Bernal, W.L.Bragg, J.W. Perutz, P.P. Ewald,I. Fankuchen, H.Lipson, Kathleen Lonsdalem, A.L.Patterson, Linus Pauling, M.F. Perutz, Robert Robinson, R.L.M. Synge and Dorothy Wrinch, and very many of the younger scientists from Britain and overseas who researched in various capacities in her laboratory such as G.G. Dodson, J.D. Dunitz and David Sayre. The sequence is noteworthy for the significant number of women scientists who trained in Hodgkin's laboratory including J. Glusker (née Pickworth) and B.W. Low. There is also an extended sequence of shorter scientific correspondence arranged chronologically 1933-91. Hodgkin kept together by topic much of the scientific correspondence relating to her principal research projects and this correspondence is to be found in Section B Research.
Section J (Non-print material) comprises photographs, photographic slides, sound recordings and film. There are photographs of Hodgkin, mostly undated, and with scientific colleagues including J.D. Bernal and I. Fankuchen, H.M. Powell and colleagues from Oxford laboratory, P.L. Kapitza and F.H.C. Crick, a photograph album recording Pugwash occasions, 1969-88, photographic slides for Hodgkin's lectures especially on insulin and vitamin B12 work and three sound recordings including the 1973 Nobel Guest Lecture and her Chancellor's Address to the Bristol University Education Department in 1974.
The bibliography was compiled for the catalogue from Hodgkin's own incomplete lists (D.108) and a search of the abstract literature. Following the example of Hodgkin's own lists it includes in the numbered sequence her Ph.D. thesis. References in the catalogue are to this bibliography in the form Bibliog....
THE ASSEMBLING OF THE MATERIAL, AND THE COMPILATION AND PRODUCTION OF THIS CATALOGUE, HAVE BEEN MADE POSSIBLE BY A GENEROUS SUBVENTION FROM THE LEVERHULME TRUST
The NCUACS would like to take this opportunity to record our gratitude to the Director of the Leverhulme Trust, Sir Rex Richards, and the Leverhulme Trustees for their support of the scientific archives work since the transfer of operations to Bath in 1987. This has taken the form of three major cataloguing projects: the papers of Sir John Kendrew (1987-1989), Sir David Phillips (1991-1994) and Professor Dorothy Hodgkin OM (1992-1994). The three collections are deposited in the Bodleian Library, Oxford where they form an indispensable corpus of material for the history of twentieth-century British science.
We owe a first duty of thanks to Professor Hodgkin for making her papers available for cataloguing and for information and advice particularly about family and biographical matters.
We also owe a great debt of gratitude to Professor Judith Howard whose advice on the very extensive research materials was indispensable to the successful cataloguing of them.
Timonty E. Powell of the NCUSACS at Bath has helped at all stages of the project with advice and information.
Hazel Gott has earned much gratitude for the patience and skill she had brought in the processing and revising of the catalogue."
|Date:||1828 - 1993|
Papers of Hodgkin's parents John Winter and Grace Mary Crowfoot are retained in family hands.
Papers of Hodgkin's husband Thomas Lionel Hodgkin are in the Rhodes House Library, Oxford and in family hands.
Papers of Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866) are in the Library of the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London.
A Photograph album recording Hodgkin's eightieth birthday celebrations is retained in family hands.
Videotape interviews of Hodgkin are held in the Archives of the Biochemical Society and the Library of the Royal College of Physicians, London.
Two models showing the crystal structure of vitamin B12 and two models made by Hodgkin to show the structure of pig insulin at a resolution of 2.8 Angstroms are held by the Science Museum, London.
Drawings of Hodgkin's hands by Henry Morre and a portrait of her by Bryan Organ are held by the Royal Society, London.
A portrait by Maggi Hambling was commissioned for the National Portrait Gallery, London.
|Held by:||Oxford University: Bodleian Library, Special Collections, not available at The National Archives|
|Physical description:||232 boxes|
NOT ALL THE MATERIAL IN THE COLLECTION IS YET AVAILABLE FOR CONSULTATION.
ENQUIRIES SHOULD BE ADDRESSED IN THE FIRST INSTANCE TO:
THE KEEPER OF WESTERN MANUSCRIPTS THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY OXFORD OX1 3BG
|Immediate source of acquisition:||
The material was received at various dates between October 1991 and February 1994 from Professor Hodgkin and from the Chemical Crystallography Laboratory at Oxford University.
The completion of this catalogue of the manscript papers of Professor Dorothy Hodgkin OM is a significant event in the work of the National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists. Like all such large-scale cataloguing projects it has had a long gestation. Professor Hodgkin approached the NCUACS's Oxford-based predecessor organisation in 1981 for advice about her papers and visited its offices in 1983. Contacts were maintained after the scientific archives project was transferred to Bath in 1987 and in 1991 Professor Hodgkin gave permission for the NCUACS to catalogue her papers for deposit in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. The Unit's archivists made a number of visits to the Chemical Crystallography Laboratory, Oxford and Professor Hodgkin's home to survey the very substantial accumulations of papers in both locations. A detailed archival assessment of their quantity, nature and importance for a wide range of aspects of the history of science was prepared, and a funding proposal for submission to the Leverhulme Trust was developed. We were very fortunate to secure funding from the Trust for two years and Mr Paul Newman was appointed in 1992 to catalogue the papers. Professor Hodgkin has been supportive throughout with advice and encouragement and Mr Newman has met the challenge of his first encounter with scientific archives with great success.
This bibliography has been complied for the catalogue from Hodgkin's own incomplete lists (D.108) and a search of the abstract literature. Following the example of Hodgkin's lists, her Ph.D. thesis has been included. References in the catalogue are to this bibliography in the form Bibliog.....
1) 1932 (with H.M. Powell) Layer chain structures of thallium dialkyl halides, Nature, Lond. 130, 131.
2) 1933 (with J.D. Bernal) The structure of the Diel's hydrocarbon C18 H16. Chemy Ind., Lond. 52, 729.
3) (with J.D. Bernal) Crystal structure of vitamin B1 and of adenine hydrochloride. J. chem. Soc., p.716.
4) (with J.D. Bernal) Crystalline phases of some substances studied as liquid crystals. Trans. Faraday Soc. 29, 1032.
5) (with J.D. Bernal, B. Robinson & W.A. Wooster) Crystallography Annual Reports. Chemical Society, p.379.
6) 1934 (with H.M. Powell) Crystal structures of dimethyl thallium halides. Z. Kristallogr. 87, 370
7) (with J.D. Bernal) X-ray photographs of crystalline pepsin. Nature, Lond. 133, 794.
8) (with J.D. Bernal) X-ray crystallographic measurements on some derivatives of cardiac aglucones. Chemy Ind. 53, 953.
9) (with J.D. Bernal) Use of the centrifuge in determining the density of small crystals. Nature, Lond. 134, 809.
10) 1935 (with J.D. Bernal) The structure of some hydrocarbons related to the sterold. J. chem. Soc., p. 93
11) X-ray single crystal photographs of insulin. Nature, Lond.135, 591.
12) The interpretation of Weissenberg photographs in relation to crystal symmetry. Z. Kristallogr. (A) 90, 215.
13) A note on the X-ray crystallography of the toad-polsons bufagin and cinobufagin and of strophanthidin. Chemy Ind., Lond 54, 568-9.
14) (with J.D.Bernal) Molecular weight of calciferol and related substances. Chemy Ind., Lond. 54, 701-2.
15) 1936 X-ray crystallography and the chemistry of the sterols. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge.
16) (with B.K. Blount) The veratrine alkaloids. III. The preparation of cevanthrol, and the x-ray crystallographic examination of cevanthrol and cevanthridine. J. chem. Soc., p.414.
17) X-ray crystallographic measurement of phrenosinic (cerebonic) acid and its oxidation product. J. chem. Soc., p.716.
18) (with W.S. Rapson & R. Robinson) Experiments on the synthesis of substances related to the sterols. Part XI. The constitution of the condensation products from acetyl cyclo hexene and methoxytetralone. J. chem. Soc., p.757.
19) (with J.D. Bernal) X-ray crystallographic data on the sex-hormones, oestrone, androsterone, testosterone, and progesterone, and related substances. Z. Kristallogr. (A) 93, 464.
20) (with H. Jensen) Molecular wieght of cinobufagin. J. Am. chem. Soc. 58, 2018.
21) 1937 (with J.D. Bernal) X-ray crystallography and the chemistry of sterols and sex hormones. Chem. Weekblad 34, 2.
22) The two crystalline modifications of insulin. Nature, Lond. 140, 149.
23) 1938 The crystal structure of insulin: l. The investigation of air-dried insulin crystals. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 164, 580.
24) Note on the molecular weight of =294=-tocopheryl allophanate. In F. Bergel, A.R. Todd & T.S. Work, Studies on Vitamin E, Part III. J. chem. Soc., p.258.
25) (with D. Riley) Crystal structures of the proteins. An x-ray study of Palmer's lactoglobulin. Nature, Lond. 141, 521.
26) (with I. Fankuchen) The molecular weight of a tobacco seed globulin. Nature, Lond. 141, 522.
27) The molecular weight of fichtelite. J. chem. Soc., p.1241.
28) 1939 X-ray studies of protein crystals. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 170, 74.
29) (with D. Riley) X-ray measurements on wet insulin crystals. Nature, Lond. 144, 1011.
30) 1940 (with J.D. Bernal & I. Fankuchen) X-ray crystallography and the chemistry of the steroids. Part I. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 239, 135.
31) 1941 A review of some recent work on protein crystals. Chem. Rev. 28, 215.
32) (with C.H. Carlisle) A determination of molecular symmetry in the [alpha] [beta] diethyl dibenzyl series. J.chem. Soc., p.6
33) 1942 (with J.G. Chalmers) The elimination of 3:4 benzpyrene from the animal body after subcutaneous injection. 2. Changed benzpyrene. Biochem. J. 35, 1270.
34) 1943 (with I. Berenblum, E.R. Holiday & R. Schoental) The metabolism of 3:4 benzpyrene in mice and rats. Cancer Res. 3, 151.
35) (with B.W. Low) A note on the crystallography of helvolic acid and the methyl ester of helvolic acid. Br. J. exp. Pathol. 24, 120.
36) 1944 (with B.W. Rogers-Low) X-ray crystallography of Gilotoxin. Nature, Lond. 153, 651-2.
37) (with B.W. Low) Crystallographic examination of patulin and claviformin. Lancet, Jan. 22nd, p.112.
38) (with B.W. Rogers-Low) X-ray crystallography and the chemistry of the sterols. Vitamins & Hormones, p.2.
39) 1945 (with C.H. Carlisle) The crystal structure of cholesteryl iodide. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A. 184, 64.
40) (with G.M.J. Schmidt) X-ray crystallographic measurements on a single crystal of a tobacco necrosis virus derivative. Nature, Lond. 155, 504.
41) 1946 Protein Crystals. Usp. Khim. 15, 215-30.
42) (with E.P. Abraham, A.E. Joseph & E.M. Osborn) Antibacterial substance from Arctium minus and Onopordon tauricum. Nature, Lond. 158, 744-5.
43) 1947 Crystallography. Nature, Lond. 160, 193.
44) 1948 (with J.D. Dunitz) The structure of calciferol. Nature, Lond. 162, 608.
45) X-ray crystallographic studies of compounds of biochemical interest. A. Rev. Biochem., p.115.
46) 1949 (with C.W. Bunn, B.W. Rogers-Low & A. Turner-Jones) X-ray crystallographic investigation of the structure of penicillin. In Chemistry of Penicillin. Princeton University Press.
47) (with G.J. Pitt) Crystallography 1947, 1948, 1949. A. Rep. chem. Soc., p.57.
48) 1950 X-ray analysis and protein structure. Cold spring Harbor Symp. 14, 65.
49) (with M.W. Porter & R.C. Spiller) Crystallographic measurements on the anti-pernicious anaemia factor. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 136, 609.
50) (with G.J. Pitt & J. Thewlis) Crystallography 1950. A. Rep. chem. Soc., p.47.
51) (with C. Darwin) Crystal structure of the dimer of p-bromonitroso-benzene. Nature, Lond. 166, 827.
52) 1951 (with P.M. Cowan) A comparison of x-ray measurements on air-dried tobacco necrosis protein crystals with electron microscope data. Acta crystallogr. 4, 160.
53) Crystallography, Introduction. Ann. Rep. chem. Soc.
54) 1952 An x-ray crystallographic study of certain peptides. Intern. Congr. Biochem., Abstr. of communs., pp.159-60.
55) X-ray analysis of the structure of penicillin. Advancement Sci. 6, 85-9.
56) (with D. Sayre) A crystallographic examination of the structure of luministerol. J. chem. Soc., p.4561.
57) 1953 (with P.M. Cowan) Some observations on peptide chain models in relation to crystallographic studies on gramicidin B and insulin. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 141, 89-92.
58) 1954 (with H. Mendel) The crystal structure of creatine monohydrate. Acta crystallogr. 7, 443.
59) (with C. Brink, J. Lindsey, J. Pickworth, J.H. Robertson & J.G. White) X-ray crystallographic evidence on the structure of vitamin B12. Nature, Lond. 174, 1168.
60) 1955 É cristallographique par les rayons X de la structure de la vitamine B12. Bull. Soc. fr. Minér. Cristallogr. 78, 106-115.
61) (with J. Pickworth, R.J. Prosen, J.H. Robertson, K.N. Trueblood & J.G. White) Structure of vitamin B12. The crystal structure of the hexacarboxylic acid derived from B12 and the molecular structure of the vitamin. Nature, Lond. 176, 325.
62) (with M.J. Kamper) Some observations on the crystal structure of a chlorine substituted vitamin B12. Nature, Lond. 176, 551-3.
63) (with M. Mackay) A crystallographic examination of the structure of morphine. J. chem. Soc., p.3261.
64) (with A.W. Johnson & A.R. Todd) Structure of vitamin B12. Chem. Soc., Spec. Publ. no. 3, 109-23.
65) 1956 (with B.M. Oughton) A speculation on insulin. Ciba Foundation, Colloquia on Endocrinology 9, 133-141.
66) The structure of vitamin B12. Europäisches Symposion über Vitamin B12 und Intrinsic Factor. Ferdinand Enke Verlag, Stuttgart.
67) (with M.J. Kamper, M. Mackay, J. Pickworth, K.N. Trueblood & J.G. White) Structure of vitamin B12. Nature, Lond. 178, 64-66.
68) 1957 (with B.M. Oughton & G.M.J. Schmidt) A crystallographic study of some derivatives of gramicidin S. Biochem. J. 65, 744.
69) (with J.D. Dunitz & M.S. Webster) Structure of calciferol. Chem. & Ind., Lond., pp.1148-9.
70) (with M.J. Kamper, J. Lindsey, M. Mackay, J. Pickworth, R.J. Prosen, J.H. Robertson, C.B. Shoemaker, K.N. Trueblood & J.G. White) The structure of vitamin B12. I. An outline of the crystallographic investigation of vitamin B12. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 242, 228.
71) 1959 (with J. Pickworth, R.J. Prosen, J.H. Robertson, R.A. Sparks & K.N. Trueblood) The structure of vitamin B12. II. The crystal structure of a hexacarboxylic acid obtained by the degradation of vitamin B12. Proc.R. Soc. Lond. A 251, 306-352.
72) 1960 (with M.J. Kamper, K.N. Trueblood & J.G. White) Some observations on the structures of wet and air-dried crystals of vitamin B12. Z. Kristallogr. 113, 6.
73) (with N.E. Taylor & J.S. Rollett) The x-ray crystallographic determination of the structure of bromomiroestrol. J. chem. Soc., pp.3685-95.
74) Molecules in crystals. Nature, Lond. 188, 441-447.
75) 1961 Molecules in crystals. Notes Rec. R. Soc. Lond., 16.
76) (with E.N. Maslen) The x-ray analysis of the structure of cephalosporin C. Biochem. J. 79, 393-402.
77) (with P.G. Lenhert) Structure of the 5,6 dimethyl-benzimidazolyl-cobamide coenzyme. Nature, Lond. 192, 937.
78) (with C.P. Saunderson) Crystal structure of suprasterol II. Tetrahedron Letters 16, 573-8.
79) J.D. Bernal. Scientific World V.
80) (with P.G. Lenhert) The x-ray crystallographic investigation of the 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole-cobamide coenzyme. 2nd European Symposium on Vitamin B12 and Intrinsic Factor. Ferdinand Enke Verlang, Stuttgart.
81) 1962 (with J. Lindsey, M. Mackay & K.N. Trueblood) The structure of vitamin B12. IV. The x-ray analysis of air-dried crystals of B12. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 266, 475.
82) (with J. Lindsey, M. Mackay, R.A. Sparks & K.N. Trueblood) The structure of vitamin B12. V. The structure of the air-dried crystals of vitamin B12. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 266, 494.
83) 1963 (with S. Abrahamsson & E.N. Maslen) The crystal structure of phenoxymethyl-penicillin. Biochem. J. 86, 514.
84) X-ray crystallography in hormone research. In Techniques in endocrine research. New York: Academic Press Inc.
85) (with D. Dale & K. Venkatesan) The determination of the crystal structure of factor V 1a. Cryst. Crystal Perfect., Proc. Symp., Madras, pp.237-42.
86) (with J.D. Dunitz, B.M. Rimmer & K.N. Trueblood) The crystal structure of a calciferol derivative. J. chem. Soc., pp.4945-56.
87) 1964 (with C. Brink-Shoemaker, D.W.J. Cruickshank, M.J. Kamper & D. Pilling) The structure of vitamin B12. VI. The structure of crystals of vitamin B12 grown from and immersed in water. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 278, 1-26.
88) Notes on molecular geometry and chemical reactivity in connection with the B12 vitamins. In The law of mass action, det Norske Videnskaps Akademi, Oslo Universitetsforleget.
89) Vitamin B12 and the porphyrins. Fedn Proc. Fedn Am. Socs exp. Biol. 23, 592.
90) The x-ray analysis of complicated molecules. Prix Nobel, pp.157-78. Nobel Foundation.
91) 1965 (with D. Dale) The crystal structure of black nitrosyl-pentammine dichloride. J. chem. Soc., p.1364.
92) Die Röntgen Strukturanalyse komplizierter Moleküle. Angew. Chem. 77 (21) 954-962.
93) Die Rontgen Strukturanalyse einiger biochemisch interessanter Molekule. Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Forschung des Landes NR-Westfalen, p.159.
94) The structure of the corrin nucleus from x-ray analysis. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 288, 294-305.
95) 1966 Vitamin B12. Revista del Colegio de Quinicos de Puerto Rico 25, 6.
96) (with M.J. Adams, E.J. Coller, G.G. Dodson & S. Ramaseshan) X-ray crystallographic studies on2 zinc insulin crystals. Am. J. Med. 40. 667.
97) (with M.M. Harding A.F. Kennedy, A. O'Connor & P.D.J. Weitzmann) The crystal structure of insulin. II. An investigation of rhombohedral zinc insulin crystals and a report of other crystalline forms. J. molec. Biol. 16, 212-226.
98) (with E.J. Dodson, M.M. Harding & M.G. Rossman) The crystal structure of insulin. III. Evidence for a 2-fold axis in rhombohedral zinc insulin. J. molec. Biol. 16, 227-241.
99) (with M.J. Adams, E.J. Coller, G.G. Dodson & S. Ramaseshan) X-ray crystallographic studies on zinc insulin crystals. Acta crystallogr. 21, A 156 (supplement).
100) 1967 (with M.J. Adams, E.J. Dodson & G.G. Dodson) A report on recent calculations on rhombohedral insulin crystals containing lead. In Conformation of biopolymers (ed. Ramachandran), vol 1, pp.9-16. Academic Press.
101) (with P.G. Lenhert) Structure of the vitamin B12 coenzyme. 7th International congress of biochemistry. Tokyo.
102) Some observations on crystallography, chemistry and medicine. The Harvey Lectures, series 61. New York: Academic Press Inc.
103) (with C.E. Nockolds, S. Ramaseshan, J.M. Waters & T.N.M. Waters) Structure of a monocarboxylic acid derivative of vitamin B12. (1) Crystal and molecular structure from x-ray analysis. Nature, Lond. 214, 129.
104) (with F.H. Moore & B.T.M. Willis) Structure of a monocarboxylic acid derivative of vitamin B12. (2) Crystal and molecular structure from neutron diffraction analysis. Nature, Lond. 214, 130-133.
105) (with A. Cooper) The crystal structure and absolute configuration of fusidic acid methyl ester 3-p-bromobenzoate. Tetrahedron 24(2), 909-22.
106) 1968 (with D.P. Riley) Some ancient history of protein X-ray analysis. In Structural Chemistry and Molecular Biology; a volume dedicated to Linus Pauling by his students, colleagues and friends (ed. A. Rich & N. Davidson), W.H. Freeman & Co.
107) Vitamin B12. Proc. R. Inst. Gt. Br. 42, 199.
108) 1969 (with D.H. Dale, B.F. Hoskins & F.D. Williams) The structure of the red nitrosylpentamminecobalt (iii) cation. Chem. Commun., pp.69-70.
109) (with D. Hall & M.N.G. James) Crystalline modifications of ampicillin, I. The trihydrate, Nature, Lond. 220, 168.
110) (with M.J. Adams, E.N. Baker, T.L. Blundell, E.J. Dodson, G.G. Dodson, M.M. Harding, B.M. Rimmer & M. Vijayan) The structure of rhombohedral 2 zinc insulin crystals. Nature, Lond. 224, 491.
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OUTLINE OF THE CAREER OF DOROTHY MARY CROWFOOT HODGKIN
Dorothy Mary Crowfoot was born in Cairo in 1910 and brought up in East Anglia. She was educated at the Sir John Leman School, Beccles and Somerville College, Oxford where she read chemistry 1928-32. Apart from two years research at Cambridge University after graduation she remained in Oxford for the rest of her career. Here for twenty-five years she combined teaching chemistry at Somerville, where her students included the future Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, with research at the highest level. She became University lecturer and demonstrator in 1946 and University Reader in X-ray crystallography in 1956. From 1960 to official retirement in 1977 she was Wolfson Research Professor of the Royal Society. She also married and raised a family. In 1937 she married Thomas Lionel Hodgkin (died 1982); they had three children Luke Howard born 1938, Prudence Elizabeth born 1943 and John Robin Tobias born 1946.
Dorothy Hodgkin carried out her first research at Oxford in 1931-32 with H.M. Powell on the structure of thallium diakyl halides. She then went to Cambridge to work for two years with J.D. Bernal who had just been appointed to start research on the study of crystals by x-ray diffraction and had begun to look at biologically interesting molecules. The international success of his investigations led to increasing demands on his research, and Hodgkin joined him to make the first measurements on materials sent for analysis. The research included work on sterols, vitamin B1 and the protein pepsin, and Hodgkin wrote her thesis for the Ph.D. degree at Cambridge on the results of the research on sterols. On her return to Oxford she decided to concentrate on one crystal structure in detail and (with C.H. Carlisle) correctly analysed cholesterol iodide, the first complex organic molecule to be determined completely by x-ray crystallography. Early in the Second World War the successful tests with penicillin extracts on infected mice by Howard Florey and his team in Oxford led to urgent attempts to determine its chemical structure. Hodgkin and her coworkers accomplished this in three years with x-ray techniques, showing conclusively that the formula of penicillin included [beta] lactam and thiazolidine rings. This x-ray determination was of national importance at the time, and was to have a lasting effect on the development of antibiotics, since in order to make synthetic drugs it is necessary to know the structure of the original material. She later elucidated the structure of cephalosporin C, an antibiotic closely related to penicillin.
After 1948 Hodgkin began work on the x-ray analysis of vitamin B12 which is essential to the life of red blood cells in the body - the inability to absorb sufficient vitamin B12 from the diet leads to pernicious anaemia. The red crystals of the anti pernicious anaemia factor were supplied by E.L. Smith of Glaxo Laboratories and after a lengthy step-by-step analysis lasting nearly ten years she and her team found the structure. The processing of data was aided by three of the first electronic computers located at Manchester University, the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington and the University of California, Los Angeles, and Hodgkin played a leading part in the campaign to provide computer facilities at Oxford University. After the success of the vitamin B12 work Hodgkin and her team refocused their research effort on the crystal structure of insulin-she had taken the first x-ray photographs of insulin crystals in 1935 - and were able to announce the three-dimensional structure of rhombohedral 2 Zn insulin in 1969. Research on insulin refinements continued into the 1980s.
Apart from her scientific research career at Oxford University, Hodgkin undertook a number of prominent public and professional responsibilities including in the UK, Chancellor of Bristol University, 1970-88, and President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1977-78, and internationally, President of the International Union of Crystallography, 1972-75. Hodgkin's involvement in humanitarian and peace issues was given impetus by the Vietnam War. She became Vice-President of the Medical Aid Committee for Vietnam in 1965 and President in 1971. As President she visited North Vietnam in 1971 and 1974. Her second major commitment in the area of peace and international understanding was to the Pugwash movement (Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs), which she served as President, 1976-88.
Hodgkin was elected FRS in 1947 (Royal Medal 1956, Copley Medal 1976; Tercentenary Lecture 1960, Bakerian Lecture 1972), and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964 for her determinations by x-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances. In 1965 she became only the second woman to be appointed to the Order of Merit.
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